Liver position and lung-to-head ratio for prediction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and survival in isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia
ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of liver position and lung-to-head ratio to predict outcome in isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia.
We reviewed prenatal studies and postnatal outcomes of congenital diaphragmatic hernia between January 1996 and January 2006.
Eighty-nine patients received prenatal and postnatal care at 1 institution. In fetuses with liver up, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was required in 39 of 49 fetuses (80%), compared with 10 of 40 fetuses (25%) for those with liver down (P < .0001). Overall survival rate was 45%, compared with 93% for those with liver down (P < .00005). Low lung-to-head ratio (<1.0) predicted increased incidence of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (75%; P = .036) and lower survival (35%; P = .0003). However, when measured at <24 weeks of gestation, lung-to-head ratio was not predictive of outcome (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, P = .108; survival, P = .150); liver position remained highly predictive (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, P = .006; survival, P = .001).
Liver position is the best prenatal predictor of outcome in isolated left congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Lung-to-head ratio alone should not be used to counsel families regarding mid gestational management choices.
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ABSTRACT: Although intuitive, the benefit of prenatal evaluation and multidisciplinary perinatal management for fetuses with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is unproven. We compared the outcome of prenatally diagnosed patients with CDH whose perinatal management was by a predefined protocol with those who were diagnosed postnatally and managed by the same team. We hypothesized that patients with CDH undergoing prenatal evaluation with perinatal planning would demonstrate improved outcome. Retrospective chart review of all patients with Bochdalek-type CDH at a single institution between 2004 and 2009 was performed. Patients were stratified by history of perinatal management, and data were analyzed by Fisher's Exact test and Student's t test. Of 116 patients, 71 fetuses presented in the prenatal period and delivered at our facility (PRE), whereas 45 infants were either outborn or postnatally diagnosed (POST). There were more high-risk patients in the PRE group compared with the POST group as indicated by higher rates of liver herniation (63% vs 36%, P = .03), need for patch repair (57% vs 27%, P = .004), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use (35% vs 18%, P = .05). Despite differences in risk, there was no difference in 6-month survival between groups (73% vs 73%). Patients with CDH diagnosed prenatally are a higher risk group. Prenatal evaluation and multidisciplinary perinatal management allows for improved outcome in these patients.Journal of Pediatric Surgery 05/2011; 46(5):808-13. DOI:10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2011.02.009 · 1.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) can be associated with genetic or structural anomalies with poor prognosis. In isolated cases, survival is dependent on the degree of lung hypoplasia and liver position. Cases should be referred in utero to tertiary care centers familiar with this condition both for prediction of outcome as well as timed delivery. The best validated prognostic indicator is the lung area to head circumference ratio. Ultrasound is used to measure the lung area of the index case, which is then expressed as a proportion of what is expected normally (observed/expected LHR). When O/E LHR is < 25% survival chances are < 15%. Prenatal intervention, aiming to stimulate lung growth, can be achieved by temporary fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO). A balloon is percutaneously inserted into the trachea at 26-28 weeks, and reversal of occlusion is planned at 34 weeks. Growing experience has demonstrated the feasibility and safety of the technique with a survival rate of about 50%. The lung response to, and outcome after FETO, is dependent on pre-existing lung size as well gestational age at birth. Early data show that FETO does not increase morbidity in survivors, when compared to historical controls. Several trials are currently under design.Prenatal Diagnosis 07/2008; 28(7):581-91. DOI:10.1002/pd.2033 · 3.27 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to review the state of affairs in the field of embryo–fetoscopy as well as its instrumental requirements. Today, endoscopic procedures of limited complexity are easily possible within the amniotic cavity. Embryoscopy is typically done for diagnostic purposes, such as the demonstration of external anomalies very early in pregnancy and/or obtaining embryonic tissues in recurrent miscarriages. Fetoscopy is the direct visualization of the amniotic cavity from the second trimester onwards. Its principal indications are complications of monochorionic twinning and severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia. There is level I evidence that fetoscopic laser surgery for twin–twin-transfusion syndrome is superior over amniodrainage. Fetoscopic endoluminal tracheal occlusion is done for severe diaphragmatic hernia. Whether tracheal occlusion yields better outcomes than expectant management during pregnancies is currently being investigated in a randomized trial. There are a number of less common procedures discussed as well. Overall, maternal risks of embryo–fetoscopy are minimal. The most frequent complication is rupture of the membranes and as a consequence preterm delivery. Fetal surgery seems safe and has, therefore, become a clinical reality. Although the stage of technical experimentation is over, most interventions remain investigational. Inclusion of patients into trials whenever possible should be encouraged, rather than building up casuistic experience. KeywordsFetal surgery-Fetoscopy-Embryoscopy-Prenatal diagnosis-Missed abortionGynecological Surgery 05/2010; 7(2):113-125. DOI:10.1007/s10397-010-0565-4