The prevalence and geographic distribution of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the United States
ABSTRACT Previous US studies of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) prevalence have sampled small, geographically restricted populations and may not be generalizable to the entire nation. This study sought to determine the prevalence of Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) in a large national sample and to compare the prevalence across geographic regions and other sociodemographic characteristics.
We analyzed the health insurance claims for 9 million Americans, pooled from 87 health plans in 33 states, and identified cases of CD and UC using diagnosis codes. Prevalence was determined by dividing the number of cases by the number of persons enrolled for 2 years. Logistic regression was used to compare prevalence estimates by geographic region, age, sex, and insurance type (Medicaid vs commercial).
The prevalence of CD and UC in children younger than 20 years was 43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 40-45) and 28 (95% CI, 26-30) per 100,000, respectively. In adults, the prevalence of CD and UC was 201 (95% CI, 197-204) and 238 (95% CI, 234-241), respectively. The prevalence of both conditions was lower in the South, compared with the Northeast, Midwest, and West. IBD appears to be more common in commercially insured individuals, compared with those insured by Medicaid.
This estimation of the prevalence of IBD in the US should help quantify the overall burden of disease and inform the planning of appropriate clinical services.
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ABSTRACT: The ability of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to inhibit cyclooxygenase (Cox)-1 and Cox-2 underlies the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs, as well as their propensity to damage the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium. This toxic action greatly limits the use of NSAIDs in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and other chronic pathologies. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) degrades the endocannabinoid anandamide, which attenuates inflammation and promotes GI healing. Here, we describe the first class of systemically active agents that simultaneously inhibit FAAH, Cox-1, and Cox-2 with high potency and selectivity. The class prototype 4: (ARN2508) is potent at inhibiting FAAH, Cox-1, and Cox-2 (median inhibitory concentration: FAAH, 0.031 ± 0.002 µM; Cox-1, 0.012 ± 0.002 µM; and Cox-2, 0.43 ± 0.025 µM) but does not significantly interact with a panel of >100 off targets. After oral administration in mice, ARN2508 engages its intended targets and exerts profound therapeutic effects in models of intestinal inflammation. Unlike NSAIDs, ARN2508 causes no gastric damage and indeed protects the GI from NSAID-induced damage through a mechanism that requires FAAH inhibition. Multitarget FAAH/Cox blockade may provide a transformative approach to IBD and other pathologies in which FAAH and Cox are overactive.-Sasso, O., Migliore, M., Habrant, D., Armirotti, A., Albani, C., Summa, M., Moreno-Sanz, G., Scarpelli, R., Piomelli, D. Multitarget fatty acid amide hydrolase/cyclooxygenase blockade suppresses intestinal inflammation and protects against nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-dependent gastrointestinal damage. © FASEB.The FASEB Journal 03/2015; DOI:10.1096/fj.15-270637 · 5.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Probiotics are microorganisms that are ingested either in combination or as a single organism in an effort to normalize intestinal microbiota and potentially improve intestinal barrier function. Recent evidence has suggested that inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may result from an inappropriate immunologic response to intestinal bacteria and a disruption in the balance of the gastrointestinal microbiota in genetically susceptible individuals. Prebiotics, synbiotics, and probiotics have all been studied with growing interest as adjuncts to standard therapies for IBD. In general, probiotics have been shown to be well-tolerated with few side effects, making them a potential attractive treatment option in the management of IBD. To perform a systematic review of randomized controlled trials on the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics in IBD. In our systematic review we found 14 studies in patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 21 studies in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and five studies in patients with pouchitis. These were randomized controlled trials using probiotics, prebiotics, and/or synbiotics. In patients with CD, multiple studies comparing probiotics and placebo showed no significant difference in clinical outcomes. Adding a probiotic to conventional treatment improved the overall induction of remission rates among patients with UC. There was also a similar benefit in maintaining remission in UC. Probiotics have also shown some efficacy in the treatment of pouchitis after antibiotic-induced remission. To date, there is insufficient data to recommend probiotics for use in CD. There is evidence to support the use of probiotics for induction and maintenance of remission in UC and pouchitis. Future quality studies are needed to confirm whether probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics have a definite role in induction or maintenance of remission in CD, UC, and pouchitis. Similar to probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation provides an alternate modality of therapy to treat IBD by influencing the intestinal flora.Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology 12/2014; 7:473-87. DOI:10.2147/CEG.S27530
Children s Health Care 04/2014; 43(2):151-168. DOI:10.1080/02739615.2013.837824 · 0.95 Impact Factor