Autocrine and paracrine roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Virginia Commonwealth University School of Medicine, Richmond, VA 23298, USA.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 8.87). 11/2007; 18(8):300-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2007.07.005
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that has been implicated in many biological processes, including cell migration, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and immune and allergic responses. S1P levels inside cells are regulated tightly by the balance between its synthesis by sphingosine kinases and degradation by S1P lyases and S1P phosphatases. Activation of sphingosine kinase by any of a variety of agonists increases S1P levels, which in turn can function intracellularly as a second messenger or in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion to activate and signal through S1P receptors present on the surface of the cell. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of S1P as a mediator of the actions of cytokines, growth factors and hormones.

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