Autocrine and paracrine roles of sphingosine-1-phosphate.
ABSTRACT Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid metabolite that has been implicated in many biological processes, including cell migration, survival, proliferation, angiogenesis and immune and allergic responses. S1P levels inside cells are regulated tightly by the balance between its synthesis by sphingosine kinases and degradation by S1P lyases and S1P phosphatases. Activation of sphingosine kinase by any of a variety of agonists increases S1P levels, which in turn can function intracellularly as a second messenger or in an autocrine and/or paracrine fashion to activate and signal through S1P receptors present on the surface of the cell. This review summarizes recent findings on the roles of S1P as a mediator of the actions of cytokines, growth factors and hormones.
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ABSTRACT: The immunomodulatory FTY720 (fingolimod) is presently approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. It is a prodrug that acts by modulating sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor signaling. In this study, we have developed and characterized two novel oxazolo-oxazole derivatives of FTY720, ST-968 and the oxy analog ST-1071, which require no preceding activating phosphorylation, and proved to be active in intact cells and triggered S1P(1) and S1P(3), but not S1P(2), receptor internalization as a result of receptor activation. Functionally, ST-968 and ST-1071 acted similar to FTY720 to abrogate S1P-triggered chemotaxis of mouse splenocytes, mouse T cells and human U937 cells, and reduced TNFa- and LPS-stimulated endothelial cell permeability. The compounds also reduced TNF alpha-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 mRNA expression, but restored TNF alpha-mediated downregulation of PECAM-1 mRNA expression. In an in vivo setting, the application of ST-968 or ST-1071 to mice resulted in a reduction of blood lymphocytes and significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice comparable to FTY720 either by prophylactic or therapeutic treatment. In parallel to the reduced clinical symptoms, infiltration of immune cells in the brain was strongly reduced, and in isolated tissues of brain and spinal cord, the mRNA and protein expressions of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, as well as of matrix metalloproteinase-9 were reduced by all compounds, whereas PECAM-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase TIMP-1 were upregulated. In summary, the data suggest that these novel butterfly derivatives of FTY720 could have considerable implication for future therapies of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.Neuropharmacology 05/2014; 85. DOI:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2014.05.012 · 4.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a central factor responsible for lymphocyte distribution in the body. S1P is able to control the integrity of various effector cell populations within many lymphoid tissues by directing lymphocyte egress. In this review, we give an overview of the generation and degradation of S1P in specific lymphoid microenvironments. Furthermore, we discuss, sometimes contradictory, the functions of the five S1P receptors on different cells in diverse tissues and give an idea of additional counteracting chemotactic signals for lymphocyte immigration and emigration. We focus special attention to recent discoveries of S1P-specific transporters, like spinster-homolog-2 and the active secretion of S1P by endothelial cells, erythrocytes and platelets. In addition, we describe the microanatomical structures as well as entry and egress routes into lymphoid organs which lymphocytes use for efficient trafficking. Finally, we give an overview of open questions regarding the regulation of lymphocyte homing from primary lymphoid organs to secondary lymphoid organs and back again.Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis 11/2013; 62(2). DOI:10.1007/s00005-013-0264-8 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a pleiotropic bioactive lipid mediator, and the kinase that produces it have now emerged as key regulators of numerous cellular processes involved in inflammation and cancer. Here, we review the importance of S1P in colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and discuss our recent work demonstrating that S1P produced by upregulation of SphK1 during colitis and associated cancer is essential for production of the multifunctional NF-κB-regulated cytokine IL-6, persistent activation of the transcription factor Stat3, and consequent upregulation of the S1P receptor, S1PR1. The effectiveness of the pro-drug FTY720 (known as fingolimod), approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, has become the gold standard for S1P-centric drugs, and will be used to illustrate the therapeutic value of modulating SphK1 and S1P receptor functions. We will discuss our recent results showing that FTY720/fingolimod administration interferes with the SphK1/S1P/S1PR1 axis and suppresses the NF-κB/IL-6/Stat3 malicious amplification loop and CAC. These preclinical studies suggest that FTY720/fingolimod may be useful in treating colon cancer in individuals with ulcerative colitis.10/2013; 54. DOI:10.1016/j.jbior.2013.10.001