Integration of bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology by three lines of evidence into ecological risk indexes for contaminated soil assessment.
ABSTRACT A Weight of Evidence approach was applied to define three integrated effect indexes estimating the impairment on terrestrial ecosystems caused by the stressor(s) of concern. According to a Triad approach, the integrated effect indexes combined the information provided by the measurement endpoints of each line of evidence (chemistry/bioavailability, ecology and ecotoxicology) and allowed to analyse the impairment degree highlighted by each measurement endpoint as difference from the reference condition. Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) was used for the aggregation of the complementary Triad information, including expert judgement and a weighted procedure based on the endpoint sensitivity and the sensitivity of the test for ecosystem effects. The developed methodology was implemented in the DSS-ERAMANIA, Module 2, and is presented in this paper as "Integrated Effect Indexes" (IEI) sub-module. The latter has been preliminary applied to the Acna di Cengio (Italy) contaminated site; the results of this application are presented and discussed.
Article: Ecological vulnerability in wildlife: an expert judgment and multicriteria analysis tool using ecological traits to assess relative impact of pollutants.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nature development in The Netherlands often is planned on contaminated soils and sediments of former agricultural land and in floodplain areas; however, this contamination may present a risk to wildlife species desired at those nature development sites. Specific risk assessment methods are needed, because toxicological information is lacking for most wildlife species. The vulnerability of a species is a combination of its potential exposure, sensitivity to the type of pollutant, and recovery capacity. We developed a new method to predict ecological vulnerability in wildlife using autecological information. The analysis results in an ordinal ranking of vulnerable species. The method was applied to six representative contaminants: copper and zinc (essential metals, low to medium toxicity), cadmium (nonessential metal, high toxicity), DDT (persistent organic pesticide, high toxicity), chlorpyrifos (persistent organophosphate insecticide, high toxicity), and ivermectin (persistent veterinary pharmaceutical, low to medium toxicity). High vulnerability to the essential metals copper and zinc was correlated with soil and sediment habitat preference of a species and with r-strategy (opportunistic strategy suited for unstable environments). Increased vulnerability to the bioaccumulating substances cadmium and DDT was correlated with higher position of a species in the food web and with life span and K-strategy (equilibrium strategy suited for stable environments). Vulnerability to chlorpyrifos and ivermectin was high for species with a preference for soil habitats. The ecological vulnerability analysis has potential to further our abilities in risk assessment.Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 06/2009; 28(10):2233-40. · 2.81 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It is now well admitted that a battery of ecotoxicity tests should be designed by accounting for the requirements of a specific scenario such as classification of wastes or remediation efficiency of contaminated soils. The development of a single battery of tests for all applications is thereafter recognized not to be relevant. The selection of tests for constituting a battery may be established according to expert judgments, decision criteria such as cost, ecological relevance, sensitivity of selected organisms, standardization of the methods, implementation of the test protocols or after statistical analysis of test results obtained on a large series of bioassays. In this chapter, a methodological framework, based on the combination of an original multicriteria method called SIRIS and multivariate analyses, is presented for selecting ecotoxicity tests for assessing the level of contamination of soils. The interest of this approach that simultaneously accounts for ecological, technical, and economical constraints is discussed. KeywordsMulticriteria analysis–SIRIS method–Test battery–a priori selection–Soil contamination08/2009: pages 117-143;