Intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease symptoms in a national sample of married Bangladeshi women

Harvard School of Public Health, Department of Society, Human Development and Health, Boston, USA.
International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics (Impact Factor: 1.54). 02/2008; 100(1):18-23. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.06.045
Source: PubMed


To assess associations of intimate partner violence (IPV) with women's sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and to clarify biological and behavioral mechanisms underpinning heightened STD rates among abused women.
A cross-sectional investigation of married couples (n=2865) sampled via the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey.
Over one third (38%) of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical or sexual IPV in the 12 months preceding the survey. Victimization was bivariately associated with vaginal irritation/discharge, pelvic pain during intercourse, genital sores/ulcers, and vaginal discharge with odor (OR 1.39-2.09). IPV demonstrated an independent effect on vaginal irritation with discharge (adjusted OR 1.34) and vaginal discharge with odor (adjusted OR 2.08) after accounting for STD exposure (i.e., husbands' recent STD).
IPV elevates married Bangladeshi women's STD symptoms beyond the risk represented by husbands' STD alone, suggesting that high rates of STD among abusive men and the context of violence itself both relate to abused women's STD risk.

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    • "Many married women feel that they cannot refuse to have sex with their husbands if their husbands have sexually transmitted infections (STIs; Jesmin & Cready, 2014). In a nationally representative sample of Bangladeshi married women, Decker et al. (2008) found that 38% women experienced some form of violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. "
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    ABSTRACT: One-third of the women worldwide experience intimate partner violence (IPV) that increases their vulnerability to both short- and long-term physical, sexual, reproductive, and mental health problems. Surprisingly, IPV is justified by many women globally. Although the IPV literature to date is mostly focused on risk factors associated with actual occurrences, little is known on attitudinal acceptance of such violence. Also, despite the growing scholarship of community influence and health link, IPV research has relatively overlooked the effects of norms at the community level. Using a representative national sample of 13,611 married women in Bangladesh, this study examined the association of community attitudes and women's individual attitudes toward wife beating. The results revealed that women living in communities with permissive attitudes toward wife beating were more likely to justify husbands' beating (OR = 4.5). Women married at a younger age, who had less than primary-level education, lived in households categorized as poor or middle class, and did not consume media appeared to be at higher risk for justifying wife beating. This research adds to a growing research body on community influences on health by examining IPV attitudes and community norms link.
    Violence and Victims 10/2015; DOI:10.1891/0886-6708.VV-D-14-00066 · 1.28 Impact Factor
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    • "The following were not associated; age at first marriage, husband's alcohol consumption, and education (selected by stepwise forward multivariate method), and health insurance status, wealth index, and age, which were selected manually and added back in the final model. These variables have been identified as relevant in previous studies of DV and HIV serostatus (Decker et al., 2008, 2009; Dude, 2011; Gielen et al., 2002; Jewkes et al., 2006, 2010; Maman et al., 2002; Shi et al., 2013; Silverman et al., 2008 "
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and HIV among Kenyan women is known to be high, but the relationship between them is unknown. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from married and formerly married (MFM) women responding to the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/2009 were analyzed adjusting for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the covariate-adjusted associations between HIV serostatus and any reported DV as well as four constituent DV measures: physical, emotional, sexual, and aggravated bodily harm, adjusting for co-variates entered into each model using a forward stepwise selection process. Co-variates of a priori interest included those representing marriage history, risky sexual behavior, substance use, perceived HIV risk, and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of HIV among MFM women was 10.7% (any DV: 13.1%, no DV: 8.6%); overall prevalence of DV was 43.4%. Among all DV measures, only physical DV was associated with HIV (11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.01, p < 0.05). Efforts by the government and women's groups to monitor and improve policies to reduce DV, such as the Sexual Offences Act of 2006, are urgently needed to curb HIV, as are policies that seek to provide DV counseling and treatment to MFM women.
    Health Care For Women International 02/2015; 36(2):205-228. DOI:10.1080/07399332.2014.943840 · 0.63 Impact Factor
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    • "The present results corroborate previous findings of risk factors for self-reported RTIs [5] [6] [10] [11] [13] [23] [24]. However, the finding that physical IPV alone was associated with abnormal discharge contradicted results from a northern Indian study that controlled for husband's reported extramarital sex [13]. "
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of 3 types of intimate partner violence (IPV)-verbal, physical, and sexual-with self-reported symptoms of reproductive tract infections (RTIs) among married Indian women. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of population-based data from the 2005-2006 Indian National Family Health Survey-3 was conducted. The sample comprised 65610 married Indian women of reproductive age (15-49years). RESULTS: Overall, 23.9% of women experienced at least 1 type of IPV, and 9.6% reported at least 1 RTI symptom in the year preceding the survey. Verbal, physical, and sexual IPV each demonstrated a significant independent effect on the reporting of genital sores and abnormal genital discharge. Additionally, the more types of IPV a woman experienced, the higher her odds of also reporting genital sores and abnormal genital discharge. CONCLUSION: No single type of IPV explains women's risk of RTIs; rather, there are multiple pathways by which women's experience of IPV can result in RTIs. Sexual and reproductive healthcare that incorporates IPV support services is needed to meet the special needs of abused women. Additionally, RTI screening should be considered by non-governmental organizations providing care for women who have experienced IPV, especially those who report multiple types of violence.
    International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics 03/2013; 121(3). DOI:10.1016/j.ijgo.2012.12.018 · 1.54 Impact Factor
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