Intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted disease symptoms in a national sample of married Bangladeshi women
ABSTRACT To assess associations of intimate partner violence (IPV) with women's sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and to clarify biological and behavioral mechanisms underpinning heightened STD rates among abused women.
A cross-sectional investigation of married couples (n=2865) sampled via the Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey.
Over one third (38%) of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical or sexual IPV in the 12 months preceding the survey. Victimization was bivariately associated with vaginal irritation/discharge, pelvic pain during intercourse, genital sores/ulcers, and vaginal discharge with odor (OR 1.39-2.09). IPV demonstrated an independent effect on vaginal irritation with discharge (adjusted OR 1.34) and vaginal discharge with odor (adjusted OR 2.08) after accounting for STD exposure (i.e., husbands' recent STD).
IPV elevates married Bangladeshi women's STD symptoms beyond the risk represented by husbands' STD alone, suggesting that high rates of STD among abusive men and the context of violence itself both relate to abused women's STD risk.
- SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Gender-based violence is an important risk factor for adverse reproductive health (RH). Community-level violence may inhibit young women's ability to engage in safer sexual behaviors due to a lack of control over sexual encounters. Few studies examine violence as a contextual risk factor. Using nationally representative data from five African countries, the association between community-level physical or sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) and the circumstances of first sex (premarital or marital) among young women (ages 20-29) was examined. In Mali, and Kenya bivariate analyses showed that young women who had premarital first sex were from communities where a significantly higher percentage of women reported IPV experience compared to young women who had marital first sex. Multivariate analyses confirmed the findings for these two countries; young women from communities with higher IPV were significantly more likely to have had premarital first sex compared to first sex in union. In Liberia, community-level IPV was associated with a lower risk of premarital sex as compared to first sex in union at a marginal significance level. There was no significant relationship between community-level IPV and the circumstances of first sex in the Democratic Republic of Congo or Zimbabwe. These findings indicate that context matters for RH. Individualized efforts to improve RH may be limited in their effectiveness if they do not acknowledge the context of young women's lives. Programs should target prevention of violence to improve RH outcomes of youth.Reproductive Health 06/2010; 7:11. DOI:10.1186/1742-4755-7-11 · 1.62 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of both domestic violence (DV) and HIV among Kenyan women is known to be high, but the relationship between them is unknown. Nationally representative cross-sectional data from married and formerly married (MFM) women responding to the Kenya Demographic and Health Survey 2008/2009 were analyzed adjusting for complex survey design. Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess the covariate-adjusted associations between HIV serostatus and any reported DV as well as four constituent DV measures: physical, emotional, sexual, and aggravated bodily harm, adjusting for co-variates entered into each model using a forward stepwise selection process. Co-variates of a priori interest included those representing marriage history, risky sexual behavior, substance use, perceived HIV risk, and socio-demographic characteristics. The prevalence of HIV among MFM women was 10.7% (any DV: 13.1%, no DV: 8.6%); overall prevalence of DV was 43.4%. Among all DV measures, only physical DV was associated with HIV (11.9%; adjusted odds ratio: 2.01, p < 0.05). Efforts by the government and women's groups to monitor and improve policies to reduce DV, such as the Sexual Offences Act of 2006, are urgently needed to curb HIV, as are policies that seek to provide DV counseling and treatment to MFM women.Health Care For Women International 02/2015; 36(2):205-228. DOI:10.1080/07399332.2014.943840 · 0.63 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study sought to examine the association between intimate partner violence (IPV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among a large representative sample of US women. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (age, 20 years and older). The present analysis utilized the subsample of women who reported being in a relationship in the last year (n=13,928). Participants were asked whether they had experienced physical or sexual violence from their partner in the last year, as well as whether they had been diagnosed with HIV by a health care professional. Past year IPV and HIV prevalence estimates among women in romantic relationships in the United States were 5.5% and 0.17%, respectively. In models adjusting for sociodemographic factors and risky sexual behaviors (e.g., age of first intercourse), IPV was significantly associated with HIV infection (adjusted odds ratios=3.44, 95% confidence interval=1.28-9.22). We also found that 11.8% of the cases of HIV infection among women were attributable to past year IPV. The present study demonstrates a strong association between IPV and HIV in a representative sample of US women. Screening and prevention programs need to be aware of this important association.General hospital psychiatry 05/2009; 31(3):274-8. DOI:10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2009.02.004 · 2.90 Impact Factor