The chemokine stromal-derived factor-1alpha (SDF-1alpha) and its receptor, CXCR4, play a crucial role in adhesion and migration of human cancer cells. Integrins are the major adhesive molecules in mammalian cells. Here we found that SDF-1alpha increased the migration and cell surface expression of beta1 or beta3 integrin in human lung cancer cells (A549 cells). CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4 specific inhibitor (AMD3100) or small interfering RNA against CXCR4 inhibited the SDF-1alpha-induced increase in the migration of lung cancer cells. Stimulation of cells with SDF-1alpha caused an increase in extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in a time-dependent manner. In addition, treatment of A549 cells with ERK inhibitor (PD98059), NF-kappaB inhibitor (PDTC) or IkappaB protease inhibitor (TPCK) inhibited SDF-1alpha-induced cells migration and integrins expression. Treatment of A549 cells with SDF-1alpha induced IkappaB kinase alpha/beta (IKK alpha/beta) phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha phosphorylation, IkappaBalpha degradation, p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity. The SDF-1alpha-mediated increases in IKK alpha/beta phosphorylation, p65 Ser(536) phosphorylation, and kappaB-luciferase activity were inhibited by PD98059 and ERK2 mutant. Taken together, these results suggest that SDF-1alpha acts through CXCR4 to activate ERK, which in turn activates IKKalpha/beta and NF-kappaB, resulting in the activations of beta1 and beta3 integrins and contributing the migration of lung cancer cell.
"Nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) transcription factor represents a ubiquitously expressed protein family that modulates the expression of genes implicated in diverse cellular functions, such as stress response, immune reactions and metastasis (Viatour et al., 2005). NF-kB is involved in integrin expression and migration activity in human cancer cells (Huang et al., 2007). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) regulates spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) maintenance. In the present study, we examined the levels and the cellular origin of GDNF in mouse testes during age-development, and the capacity of GDNF to induce migration of enriched GFR-α1 positive cells in vitro. The involvement of MAP kinase (MEK) and NF-kB signal pathways were examined. Our results show high levels of GDNF in testicular tissue of one-week-old mice which significantly decreased with age when examined by ELISA, real time PCR (qPCR) and immunofluorescence staining (IF) analysis. GDNF receptor (GFR-α1) expression was similar to GDNF when examined by qPCR analysis. Only Sertoli cell cultures (SCs) from one-week-old mice produced GDNF compared to SCs from older mice. However, peritubular cells from all the examined ages did not produce GDNF. The addition of recombinant GDNF (rGDNF) or supernatant from SCs from one-week-old mice to GFR-α1 positive cells induced their migration in vitro. This effect was significantly reduced by the addition of inhibitors to MEK (PD98059, U0126), NF-kB (PDTC) and IkB protease inhibitor (TPCK). Our results show for the first time the capacity of rGDNF and supernatant from SCs to induce migration of enriched GFR-α1 positive cells, and the possible involvement of MEK, NF-kB and IkB in this process. This study may suggest a novel role for GDNF in the regulation SSC niches and spermatogenesis.
"The IL-6 enzyme immunoassay kit was purchased from Cayman Chemical (Ann Arbor, MI). The siCXCR4 and siCXCR4-mut siRNA were generated in our laboratory (siCXCR4 but not siCXCR4-mut specific inhibited the expression of mRNA and protein level of CXCR4) [Huang et al., 2007]. The p38 dominant negative mutant was provided by Dr. J. Han (South-western Medical Center, Dallas, TX). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The production of chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 is significantly higher in synovial fluid of patients with osteoarthritis (OA). IL-6 is a multifunctional cytokine that plays a central role in both OA and rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of SDF-1α on human synovial fibroblasts are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the intracellular signaling pathway involved in SDF-1α-induced IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblast cells. SDF-1α caused concentration- and time-dependent increases in IL-6 production. SDF-1α also increased the mRNA and surface expression of CXCR4 receptor in human synovial fibroblasts. CXCR4-neutralizing antibody, CXCR4-specific inhibitor (AMD3100), or small interfering RNA against CXCR4 inhibited the SDF-1α-induced increase of IL-6 expression. The transcriptional regulation of IL-6 by SDF-1α was mediated by phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and activation of the activator protein (AP)-1 component of c-Jun. The binding of c-Jun to the AP-1 element on the IL-6 promoter and the increase in AP-1 luciferase activity was enhanced by SDF-1α. Co-transfection with CXCR4, PI3K, Akt, and c-Jun mutants or siRNA inhibited the potentiating action of SDF-1α on AP-1 promoter activity. Taken together, our results suggest that SDF-1α-increased IL-6 production in human synovial fibroblasts via the CXCR4 receptor, PI3K, Akt, c-Jun, and AP-1 signaling pathways.
"The ability of tumour cells to invade and migrate has been ascribed to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) and chemotactic axis CXCR4/SDF-1 . In addition, MAPKs activities have been linked to the regulation of MMPs and CXCR4 [17,18]. Initially, we established that inhibition of MAPKs led to the down-regulation of MMP-2 and CXCR4. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Invasiveness and metastasis are the most common characteristics of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and causes of tumour-related morbidity and mortality. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signalling pathways have been shown to play critical roles in tumorigenesis. However, the precise pathological role(s) of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) in different cancers has been controversial such that the up-regulation of MKP-1 in different cancers does not always correlate to a better prognosis. In this study, we showed that the induction of MKP-1 lead to a significant retardation of proliferation and metastasis in NSCLC cells. We also established that rosiglitazone (a PPARgamma agonist) elevated MKP-1 expression level in NSCLC cells and inhibited tumour metastasis.
Both wildtype and dominant negative forms of MKP-1 were constitutively expressed in NSCLC cell line H441GL. The migration and invasion abilities of these cells were examined in vitro. MKP-1 modulating agents such as rosiglitazone and triptolide were used to demonstrate MKP-1's role in tumorigenesis. Bioluminescent imaging was utilized to study tumorigenesis of MKP-1 over-expressing H441GL cells and anti-metastatic effect of rosiglitazone.
Over-expression of MKP-1 reduced NSCLC cell proliferation rate as well as cell invasive and migratory abilities, evident by the reduced expression levels of MMP-2 and CXCR4. Mice inoculated with MKP-1 over-expressing H441 cells did not develop NSCLC while their control wildtype H441 inoculated littermates developed NSCLC and bone metastasis. Pharmacologically, rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist appeared to induce MKP-1 expression while reduce MMP-2 and CXCR4 expression. H441GL-inoculated mice receiving daily oral rosiglitazone treatment demonstrated a significant inhibition of bone metastasis when compared to mice receiving sham treatment. We found that rosiglitazone treatment impeded the ability of cell migration and invasion in vitro. Cells pre-treated with triptolide (a MKP-1 inhibitor), reversed rosiglitazone-mediated cell invasion and migration.
The induction of MKP-1 could significantly suppress the proliferative and metastatic abilities of NSCLC both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, MKP-1 could be considered as a potential therapeutic target in NSCLC therapy and PPARgamma agonists could be explored for combined chemotherapy.
BMC Cancer 03/2010; 10:95. DOI:10.1186/1471-2407-10-95 · 3.36 Impact Factor
Da-Wei Li, Long Meng, Kui-Xing Zhang, Wei-Ke Zhang
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