Strawberry Intake, Lipids, C-Reactive Protein, and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Women
ABSTRACT There is indirect evidence suggesting that strawberries, containing several key nutrients, may be associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the Women's Health Study, we examined strawberry intake for both its prospective association with CVD risk in 38,176 women and its cross-sectional association with lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a subset of 26,966 women.
Strawberry intake was assessed from a baseline semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire, along with other self-reported lifestyle, clinical and dietary factors. Participants returned baseline bloods which were assayed for lipids and CRP. We computed the relative risks (RRs) for total CVD (1,004 cases) (including confirmed myocardial infarction, stroke, revascularization, and cardiovascular death) occurring during 10.9 years of follow-up.
At baseline, 25.6%, 41.9%, 24.8%, and 7.7% of women reported corresponding strawberry intake of none, 1-3 servings/month, 1 serving/week, and > or =2 servings/week. For total CVD, the multivariate RRs (95% confidence intervals) for increasing categories of strawberry intake were 1.00 (ref), 1.01 (0.85-1.19), 0.95 (0.77-1.17), and 1.27 (0.94-1.72) (P, trend = 0.06). We found a similar lack of an association for individual cardiovascular endpoints and comparing mean levels of lipids and CRP by category of strawberry intake. However, women consuming > or =2 servings/week versus none had a borderline significant, multivariate 14% lower likelihood of an elevated CRP of > or =3 mg/L.
Strawberry intake was unassociated with the risk of incident CVD, lipids, or CRP in middle-aged and older women, though higher strawberry intake may slightly reduce the likelihood of having elevated CRP levels. Additional epidemiologic data are needed to clarify any role of strawberries in CVD prevention.
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- "Study findings showed that a mean anthocyanin intake of 0.2 mg/day was associated with a significantly reduced risk of CVD mortality in these postmenopausal women (Mink et al., 2007). Strawberry intake has also been associated with lower C-reactive protein (CRP) levels, a stable inflammatory biomarker among female US health professionals enrolled in the Women's Health Study (n = 38,176) (Sesso et al., 2007). These participants provided dietary information using a 131- item validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. "
ABSTRACT: Emerging research provides substantial evidence to classify strawberries as a functional food with several preventive and therapeutic health benefits. Strawberries, a rich source of phytochemicals (ellagic acid, anthocyanins, quercetin, and catechin) and vitamins (ascorbic acid and folic acid), have been highly ranked among dietary sources of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. It should however be noted that these bioactive factors can be significantly affected by differences in strawberry cultivars, agricultural practices, storage, and processing methods: freezing versus dry heat has been associated with maximum retention of strawberry bioactives in several studies. Nutritional epidemiology shows inverse association between strawberry consumption and incidence of hypertension or serum C-reactive protein; controlled feeding studies have identified the ability of strawberries to attenuate high-fat diet induced postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation, or postprandial hyperglycemia, or hyperlipidemia in subjects with cardiovascular risk factors. Mechanistic studies have elucidated specific biochemical pathways that might confer these protective effects of strawberries: upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity, downregulation of NF-kB activity and subsequent inflammation, or inhibitions of carbohydrate digestive enzymes. These health effects may be attributed to the synergistic effects of nutrients and phytochemicals in strawberries. Further studies are needed to define the optimal dose and duration of strawberry intake in affecting levels of biomarkers or pathways related to chronic diseases.Critical reviews in food science and nutrition 01/2014; 54(6):790-806. DOI:10.1080/10408398.2011.608174 · 5.55 Impact Factor
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- "Strawberries lower incidence of CVD (RR 0.91 (0.82Á1.00) also in multivariate adjusted model (adjusted for age, energy intake, marital status, education, blood pressure, diabetes, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, physical activity, smoking, and oestrogen use). B Sesso et al., 2007 (10), US women. 131-Item semi-quantitative FFQ. "
ABSTRACT: In preparing the fifth edition of the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR), the scientific basis of specific food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) was evaluated. A systematic review (SR) was conducted to update the NNR evidence based on the association between the consumption of potatoes, berries, whole grains, milk and milk products, and red and processed meat, and the risk of major diet-related chronic diseases. The SR was based on predefined research questions and eligibility criteria for independent duplicate study selection, data extraction, and assessment of methodological quality and applicability. We considered scientific data from prospective observational studies and intervention studies, published since year 2000, targeting the general adult population. Studies of meat and iron status included children, adolescents, and women of childbearing age. Based on 7,282 abstracts, 57 studies met the quality criteria and were evidence graded. The data were too limited to draw any conclusions regarding: red and processed meat intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and iron status; potatoes and berries regarding any study outcomes; and dairy consumption in relation to risk of breast cancer and CVD. However, dairy consumption seemed unlikely to increase CVD risk (moderate-grade evidence). There was probable evidence (moderate-grade) for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD, and suggestive evidence (low-grade) for colorectal cancer and for dairy consumption being associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes and increased risk of prostate cancer. The WCRF/AICR concludes that red and processed meat is a convincing cause of colorectal cancer. Probable (moderate) evidence was only observed for whole grains protecting against type 2 diabetes and CVD. We identified a clear need for high-quality nutritional epidemiological and intervention studies and for studies of foods of the Nordic diet.Food & Nutrition Research 10/2013; 57. DOI:10.3402/fnr.v57i0.22790 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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- "Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is one of the most consumed and popular fruits in Canada and the fruits are considered a very rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (Wang and Lin, 2000; Khanizadeh et al., 2002, 2006; Guo et al., 2003). Thus, increase in the consumption of strawberry fruits has been recommended as a preventive measure to decrease the risk of several chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress (Sesso et al., 2007; Seeram, 2008). After genotype, cultural practices are important determinants of pre-and postharvest quality, including fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and polyphenolic compound content. "
ABSTRACT: Use of cultural practices and tunnels based on the local microclimate is a smart way to improve fruit quality and provide off-season fruits in order to get a higher economic return. In this study, the effects were analysed of two plastic culture methods (plastic mulch and plastic mulch with row covers) and the commonly used matted-row system on fruit quality, as well as on agronomic characteristics, including yield and fruit weight. Using plastic mulch with row covers accelerated fruit maturity by 6 to 9 d over the matted-row system. Average fruit size was significantly larger with plastic mulch and plastic mulch with row covers than with the matted-row system, but there was no effect on total cumulative yield. Plastic mulch with row covers increased the total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity, but the effect diminished after mid harvest, probably due to decreasing differences between outside temperatures and temperatures under plastic mulch with row covers. INTRODUCTION Strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) is one of the most consumed and popular fruits in Canada and the fruits are considered a very rich source of bioactive phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity (Wang and Lin, 2000; Khanizadeh et al., 2002, 2006; Guo et al., 2003). Thus, increase in the consumption of strawberry fruits has been recommended as a preventive measure to decrease the risk of several chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress (Sesso et al., 2007; Seeram, 2008). After genotype, cultural practices are important determinants of pre-and post-harvest quality, including fruit firmness, soluble solids content (SSC) and polyphenolic compound content. As the inefficiencies in the conventional matted-row production system, a plastic culture system that offers the benefits of larger and earlier-ripening fruit, better weed control, and more efficient irrigation and fertilizer application was proposed (Baumann et al., 1995; O'Dell and Williams, 2000; Freeman and Gnayem, 2005). Furthermore, early fruit production provides a higher income return to growers because of off-season fruit production. It has been reported that genotype combined with cultural practice such as hill plastic culture versus matted rows increases the polyphenolic compound content of 14 strawberry cultivars and selections (Wang et al., 2002). However, few studies have been conducted in northern climates to examine the fruit quality and phytochemical compositions, especially the total phenolic content (TPC) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), of strawberries. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of selected cultural practices versus the conventional matted-row system on the TPC, TAC and fruit quality of 'Orléans' strawberry.