Metabolism and short-term metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acids in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Metabolic fate and short-term effects of a 1:1 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), compared to linoleic acid (LA), on lipid metabolism was investigated in rat liver. In isolated mitochondria CLA-CoA were poorer substrates than LA-CoA for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity. However, in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes, where interactions among different metabolic pathways can be simultaneously investigated, CLA induced a remarkable stimulatory effect on CPT-I activity. This stimulation can be ascribed to a reduced malonyl-CoA level in turn due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity. The ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system can therefore represent a coordinate control by which CLA may exert effects on the partitioning of fatty acids between esterification and oxidation. Moreover, the rate of oxidation to CO2 and ketone bodies was significantly higher from CLA; peroxisomes rather than mitochondria were responsible for this difference. Interestingly, peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity strongly increased by CLA-CoA compared to LA-CoA. CLA, metabolized by hepatocytes at a higher rate than LA, were poorer substrates for cellular and VLDL-triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Overall, our results suggest that increased fatty acid oxidation with consequent decreased fatty acid availability for TAG synthesis is a potential mechanism by which CLA reduce TAG level in rat liver.
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ABSTRACT: Background The metabolic alterations of cancer cells represent an opportunity for developing selective antineoplastic treatments. We investigated the therapeutic potential of ST1326, an inhibitor of carnitine-palmitoyl transferase 1A (CPT1A), the rate-limiting enzyme for fatty acid (FA) import into mitochondria.MethodsST1326 was tested on in vitro and in vivo models of Burkitt's lymphoma, in which c-myc, which drives cellular demand for FA metabolism, is highly overexpressed. We performed assays to evaluate the effect of ST1326 on proliferation, FA oxidation, and FA mitochondrial channeling in Raji cells. The therapeutic efficacy of ST1326 was tested by treating Eµ-myc mice (control: n = 29; treatment: n = 24 per group), an established model of c-myc-mediated lymphomagenesis. Experiments were performed on spleen-derived c-myc-overexpressing B cells to clarify the role of c-myc in conferring sensitivity to ST1326. Survival was evaluated with Kaplan-Meier analyses. All statistical tests were two-sided.ResultsST1326 blocked both long- and short-chain FA oxidation and showed a strong cytotoxic effect on Burkitt's lymphoma cells (on Raji cells at 72 hours: half maximal inhibitory concentration = 8.6 μM). ST1326 treatment induced massive cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, impairment of proper mitochondrial FA channeling, and reduced availability of cytosolic acetyl coenzyme A, a fundamental substrate for de novo lipogenesis. Moreover, treatment with ST1326 in Eµ-myc transgenic mice prevented tumor formation (P = .01), by selectively impairing the growth of spleen-derived primary B cells overexpressing c-myc (wild-type cells + ST1326 vs Eµ-myc cells + ST1326: 99.75% vs 57.5%, difference = 42.25, 95% confidence interval of difference = 14% to 70%; P = .01).Conclusions Our data indicate that it is possible to tackle c-myc-driven tumorigenesis by altering lipid metabolism and exploiting the neoplastic cell addiction to FA oxidation.CancerSpectrum Knowledge Environment 03/2013; · 14.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, the main phenols present in extra virgin olive oil, have been reported to exert several biochemical and pharmacological effects. Here, we investigated the short-term effects of these compounds on lipid synthesis in primary-cultured rat-liver cells. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without an effect on cell viability. The inhibitory effect of individual compounds was already evident within 2 h of 25 μM phenol addition to the hepatocytes. The degree of cholesterogenesis reduction was similar for all phenol treatments (−25/30%), while fatty acid synthesis showed the following order of inhibition: hydroxytyrosol (−49%) = oleuropein (−48%) > tyrosol (−30%). A phenol-induced reduction of triglyceride synthesis was also detected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their influence on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase) triglyceride synthesis (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) and cholesterogenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) was investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities were reduced after 2 h of 25 μM phenol treatment. No change in fatty acid synthase activity was observed. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition (hydroxytyrosol, −41%, = oleuropein, −38%, > tyrosol, −17%) appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. These findings suggest that a decrease in hepatic lipid synthesis may represent a potential mechanism underlying the reported hypolipidemic effect of phenols of extra virgin olive oil.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 01/2014; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Growing evidence shows that, among triiodothyronine derivatives, 3,5 diiodo-L-thyronine (T(2)) plays an important role in energy metabolism and fat storage. In the present study, short-term effects of T(2) administration to hypothyroid rats on fatty acid oxidation rate and bioenergetic parameters were investigated. Within 1 h following T(2) injection, state 3 and state 4 respiration rates, which were reduced in hypothyroid mitochondria, were noticeably increased particularly in succinate- with respect to glutamate/malate-energized mitochondria. Maximal respiratory activity, observed when glutamate/malate/succinate were simultaneously present in the respiratory medium, was significantly stimulated by T(2) treatment. A T(2)-induced increase in respiratory rates was also observed when palmitoyl-CoA or L-palmitoylcarnitine were used as substrates. No significant change in respiratory control index and ADP/O ratio was observed. The activities of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, especially Complex II, were increased in T(2)-treated rats. In the latter, Complex V activities, assayed in both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis direction, were enhanced. The rate of fatty acid oxidation, followed by conversion of [(14)C]palmitate to CO(2) and ketone bodies, was higher in hepatocytes isolated from T(2)-treated rats. This increase occurs in parallel with the raise in the activity of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I, the rate limiting enzyme of fatty acid β-oxidation, assayed in situ in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. Overall, these results indicate that T(2) rapidly increases the ability of mitochondria to import and oxidize fatty acids. An emerging idea in the literature is the ability of T(2) to reduce adiposity and dyslipidemia and to prevent the development in liver steatosis. The results of the present study, showing a rapid T(2)-induced increase in the ability of mitochondria to import and oxidize fatty acids, may contribute to understand the biochemical mechanisms of T(2)-metabolic effects.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(1):e52328. · 3.73 Impact Factor