Metabolism and short-term metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acids in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Metabolic fate and short-term effects of a 1:1 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), compared to linoleic acid (LA), on lipid metabolism was investigated in rat liver. In isolated mitochondria CLA-CoA were poorer substrates than LA-CoA for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity. However, in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes, where interactions among different metabolic pathways can be simultaneously investigated, CLA induced a remarkable stimulatory effect on CPT-I activity. This stimulation can be ascribed to a reduced malonyl-CoA level in turn due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity. The ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system can therefore represent a coordinate control by which CLA may exert effects on the partitioning of fatty acids between esterification and oxidation. Moreover, the rate of oxidation to CO2 and ketone bodies was significantly higher from CLA; peroxisomes rather than mitochondria were responsible for this difference. Interestingly, peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity strongly increased by CLA-CoA compared to LA-CoA. CLA, metabolized by hepatocytes at a higher rate than LA, were poorer substrates for cellular and VLDL-triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Overall, our results suggest that increased fatty acid oxidation with consequent decreased fatty acid availability for TAG synthesis is a potential mechanism by which CLA reduce TAG level in rat liver.
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ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of octadecadienoic acid [linoleic acid (LA), 18:2n-6] commonly found in beef, lamb and dairy products. The most abundant isomer of CLA in nature is the cis-9, trans-11 (c9t11) isomer. Commercially available CLA is usually a 1:1 mixture of c9t11 and trans-10, cis-12 (t10c12) isomers with other isomers as minor components. Conjugated LA isomer mixture and c9t11 and t10c12 isomers alone have been attributed to provide several health benefits that are largely based on animal and in vitro studies. Conjugated LA has been attributed many beneficial effects in prevention of atherosclerosis, different types of cancer, hypertension and also known to improve immune function. More recent literature with availability of purified c9t11 and t10c12 isomers suggests that t10c12 is the sole isomer involved in antiadipogenic role of CLA. Other studies in animals and cell lines suggest that the two isomers may act similarly or antagonistically to alter cellular function and metabolism, and may also act through different signaling pathways. The effect of CLA and individual isomers shows considerable variation between different strains (BALB/C mice vs. C57BL/6 mice) and species (e.g., rats vs. mice). The dramatic effects seen in animal studies have not been reflected in some clinical studies. This review comprehensively discusses the recent studies on the effects of CLA and individual isomers on body composition, cardiovascular disease, bone health, insulin resistance, mediators of inflammatory response and different types of cancer, obtained from both in vitro and animal studies. This review also discusses the latest available information from clinical studies in these areas of research.The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 01/2007; 17(12):789-810. · 4.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is known to provide certain health benefits in experimental animal models. The major CLA isomer in food is c 9,t11-CLA. A primary objective of this study was to investigate the uptake of c 9,t11-CLA and its downstream metabolites into various lipid fractions in the liver of rats fed either a high or low CLA diet (containing 0.1 or 0.8 g CLA/100 g diet, respectively). As expected, the levels of all conjugated diene (CD) fatty acids (CD 18:2 + CD 18:3 + CD 20:3 + CD 20:4) were elevated about 8-fold in the high CLA diet group. However, there was no change in the distribution of CLA and CLA metabolites into various lipid fractions due to CLA intake. Unlike linoleic acid or gamma-linolenic acid, which were distributed mainly in phospholipids, CD 18:2, CD 18:3, and CD 20:3 were incorporated primarily in neutral lipid. Furthermore, the incorporation of all nonconjugated unsaturated fatty acids was not perturbed by CLA. Regardless of the level of CLA in the diet, CD 20:4 was predominantly enriched in phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol. In contrast, arachidonic acid was primarily enriched in phosphatidylcholine and less so in phosphatidylethanolamine. The above findings may have potential implication regarding the role of CLA in modulating eicosanoid metabolism.The Journal of Lipid Research 08/2001; 42(7):1056-61. · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The present study is a follow-up to the report that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) acetate treatment in rats stimulated metabolic heat production and suppressed serum triglycerides, adiposity and weight gain without affecting food intake. Activities of peroxisomal fatty acyl-coenzyme (CoA) oxidase and catalase as well as mitochondrial citrate synthase were assayed in liver tissue of 24 young adult male and female Wistar rats fed a nonpurified diet containing 0.6% DHEA (6 g/kg) for 6 wk. DHEA-treated animals gained less weight but had heavier liver weights than did the controls. Hepatic activity of fatty acyl-CoA oxidase of the experimental male and female animal was 1058 and 946% higher, respectively, than that of the controls. For catalase activity, only the female groups were different (30%). Activity of citrate synthase was not affected by DHEA. These data support the hypothesis that the inhibitory effect of DHEA on energy storage as fat is mediated, at least in part, by increased beta-oxidation of fatty acids in peroxisomes. The peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway is uncoupled from oxidative phosphorylation; electrons are transferred directly to molecular O2 because of cycling of NAD/NADH resulting in the expenditure of chemical energy as heat.Journal of Nutrition 08/1987; 117(7):1287-90. · 4.20 Impact Factor