Metabolism and short-term metabolic effects of conjugated linoleic acids in rat hepatocytes.
ABSTRACT Metabolic fate and short-term effects of a 1:1 mixture of cis-9,trans-11 and trans-10,cis-12-conjugated linoleic acids (CLA), compared to linoleic acid (LA), on lipid metabolism was investigated in rat liver. In isolated mitochondria CLA-CoA were poorer substrates than LA-CoA for carnitine palmitoyltransferase-I (CPT-I) activity. However, in digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes, where interactions among different metabolic pathways can be simultaneously investigated, CLA induced a remarkable stimulatory effect on CPT-I activity. This stimulation can be ascribed to a reduced malonyl-CoA level in turn due to inhibition of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity. The ACC/malonyl-CoA/CPT-I system can therefore represent a coordinate control by which CLA may exert effects on the partitioning of fatty acids between esterification and oxidation. Moreover, the rate of oxidation to CO2 and ketone bodies was significantly higher from CLA; peroxisomes rather than mitochondria were responsible for this difference. Interestingly, peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity strongly increased by CLA-CoA compared to LA-CoA. CLA, metabolized by hepatocytes at a higher rate than LA, were poorer substrates for cellular and VLDL-triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis. Overall, our results suggest that increased fatty acid oxidation with consequent decreased fatty acid availability for TAG synthesis is a potential mechanism by which CLA reduce TAG level in rat liver.
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ABSTRACT: There are important differences in terms of metabolic activity, energy utilization and capacity of protein and fat deposition when Iberian and modern pigs are compared. Primary culture of hepatocytes was used to evaluate hepatic function and sensitivity to hormones between breeds without the interference of circulating blood factors. Hepatocytes were isolated from pure Iberian (n=10) and Landrace (n=8) pigs of similar BW (24.5±12.1 and 32.9±6.1 kg BW, respectively), by collagenase perfusion. Monolayers were established in medium containing fetal bovine serum for 1 day and switched to serum-free medium for the remainder of the culture period. Hepatocytes were maintained in William's E supplemented with β-mercaptoethanol (0.1 mM), glutamine (2 mM), antibiotics (gentamicin, penicillin, streptomycin and amphotericin B), dimethyl sulfoxide (1 µg/ml), dexamethasone (10-8 M), insulin (0.173 and 17.3 nM) and glucagon (0.287, 2.87 and 28.7 nM) for 24 to 48 h. Gluconeogenesis (GNG), glycogen degradation, triglycerides (TG) content and esterification, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) synthesis, IGF-1 synthesis, albumin and urea synthesis were determined. Iberian pigs had greater capacity of GNG than Landrace (24%, P<0.05), although no difference in glycogen degradation was found (P>0.10). TG content and esterification tended to be lower in hepatocytes from Iberian compared with Landrace pigs (12% and 31%, respectively; 0.10<P<0.05). Furthermore, addition of free fatty acids (CLA or linoleic acid, 0.2 mM) increased TG content (64%, P<0.001) although no difference between fatty acids was found. When free fatty acids were compared, a trend toward increased esterification (41%, P=0.078) was found for CLA. Although glucagon stimulated and insulin inhibited BHB synthesis, no difference between breeds was found (P>0.10). IGF-1 synthesis was diminished in hepatocytes from Iberian compared with Landrace pigs (16%, P<0.05). On the contrary, rate of albumin synthesis was greater in Iberian compared with Landrace pigs (58%, P<0.05). Finally, the capacity of urea synthesis was lower in hepatocytes of Iberian compared with Landrace pigs (37%, P<0.05). When ammonia was added to the media, urea concentration increased (648%, 1108% and 2791% when 0 mM was compared with 2.5, 5 and 10 mM, respectively). Urea synthesis increased on increasing ammonia content (55% and 325% when 0 mM was compared with 5 and 10 mM, respectively; P<0.0001). In conclusion, the genetic background accounts for important differences in protein and energy metabolism pathways found in primary culture of hepatocytes from lean and obese pigs.Animal : an international journal of animal bioscience. 07/2014;
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ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, the main phenols present in extra virgin olive oil, have been reported to exert several biochemical and pharmacological effects. Here, we investigated the short-term effects of these compounds on lipid synthesis in primary-cultured rat-liver cells. Hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and oleuropein inhibited both de novo fatty acid and cholesterol syntheses without an effect on cell viability. The inhibitory effect of individual compounds was already evident within 2 h of 25 μM phenol addition to the hepatocytes. The degree of cholesterogenesis reduction was similar for all phenol treatments (−25/30%), while fatty acid synthesis showed the following order of inhibition: hydroxytyrosol (−49%) = oleuropein (−48%) > tyrosol (−30%). A phenol-induced reduction of triglyceride synthesis was also detected. To clarify the lipid-lowering mechanism of these compounds, their influence on the activity of key enzymes of fatty acid biosynthesis (acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthase) triglyceride synthesis (diacylglycerol acyltransferase) and cholesterogenesis (3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase) was investigated in situ by using digitonin-permeabilized hepatocytes. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, diacylglycerol acyltransferase and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activities were reduced after 2 h of 25 μM phenol treatment. No change in fatty acid synthase activity was observed. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibition (hydroxytyrosol, −41%, = oleuropein, −38%, > tyrosol, −17%) appears to be mediated by phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. These findings suggest that a decrease in hepatic lipid synthesis may represent a potential mechanism underlying the reported hypolipidemic effect of phenols of extra virgin olive oil.The Journal of nutritional biochemistry 01/2014; · 4.29 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with two vegetable oil sources on the fatty acids of meat and giblets of broiler chickens was evaluated. Two hundred 21-day-old broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized factorial design 2 x 5 (two oil sources, soybean or canola oil; and five levels of CLA, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0g/kg). The addition of CLA to the diet resulted in an increase (P<0.05) in CLA deposition in the analyzed tissues. CLA supplementation also reduced (P<0.05) the rate of polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acids in thigh, breast, heart, and gizzard. There was interaction of CLA x oil source (P<0.05). The intake of soybean oil, associated with increasing CLA, resulted in an increase in lipid deposition in edible portions as observed by an increase in the overall content of fatty acids, including CLA, while the use of canola oil, associated with increasing CLA in the diet, resulted in a decrease in lipid content in edible portions, specifically regarding that of saturated fat (P<0.05) in breast meat and liver and in the content of monounsaturated fatty acids (P<0.05) in thigh, breast, liver, and gizzard.Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia 01/2008; 60(6). · 0.20 Impact Factor