A case of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. The role of rapid antigen-detecting and PCR-based tests.
ABSTRACT Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) - originally referred to as tropical splenomegaly syndrome - is characterized by a massive splenomegaly, high titres of anti-malarial antibodies and polyclonal IgM hypergammaglobulinemia. It is believed to be a consequence of an aberrant immunological response to prolonged exposure to malarial parasites. Although it is a frequent disease in the tropics, it is infrequent in western countries and is only seen in long-term residents from endemic areas. We describe the case of a 67-year-old Spanish man, a missionary in Cameroon for 30 years, who presented with a clinical history that fulfilled the diagnosis of HMS. We discuss the role and importance of PCR-based techniques in demonstrating lowgrade malarial parasitemia and the usefulness of new rapid antigen-detecting dipstick tests.
SourceAvailable from: Rose McGready[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Malaria infections in pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and child. There are few data on hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly, an aberrant immunological response to chronic or recurrent malaria in pregnancy. This retrospective assessment reviewed the impact of mefloquine treatment on pregnant women with suspected hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly in an area of low malaria transmission in the 1990s, showing significant reductions in spleen size and anemia and anti-malarial antibody titers without any notable negative effect on treated women or their newborns.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2014; 90(4). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.13-0706 · 2.53 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hyperreactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) is the chronic stage of a long-term stimulation of the immune system secondary to plasmodial infections, more frequently in genetically predisposed patients. HMS is a leading cause of large tropical splenomegaly in endemic zones but has been described in immigrants from Africa and in some European expatriates living in endemic countries. Diagnostic criteria include: long-term stay in a endemic zone, often large splenomegaly, high IgM titer, high antiplasmodial antibody titer, regression by at least 40% of splenomegaly six months after curative antimalarial treatment. In tropical settings, B-cell lymphoma and splenic lymphoma are the main differential diagnoses, which may be identified by a clonality analysis. Recent studies suggest that HMS can be treated by a short-term antimalarial therapy as long as the patient resides out of a malarial endemic country.MÃ©decine et Maladies Infectieuses 01/2009; 39(1):29-35. DOI:10.1016/j.medmal.2008.09.002 · 0.91 Impact Factor