A case of hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly. The role of rapid antigen-detecting and PCR-based tests.
ABSTRACT Hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly (HMS) - originally referred to as tropical splenomegaly syndrome - is characterized by a massive splenomegaly, high titres of anti-malarial antibodies and polyclonal IgM hypergammaglobulinemia. It is believed to be a consequence of an aberrant immunological response to prolonged exposure to malarial parasites. Although it is a frequent disease in the tropics, it is infrequent in western countries and is only seen in long-term residents from endemic areas. We describe the case of a 67-year-old Spanish man, a missionary in Cameroon for 30 years, who presented with a clinical history that fulfilled the diagnosis of HMS. We discuss the role and importance of PCR-based techniques in demonstrating lowgrade malarial parasitemia and the usefulness of new rapid antigen-detecting dipstick tests.
Conference Paper: Non-unilateral transistor amplifiersSolid-State Circuits Conference. Digest of Technical Papers. 1964 IEEE International; 03/1964
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ABSTRACT: In this study, 101 patients with massive splenomegaly (MS) and 41 with moderate splenomegaly (MoS) from Kassala, Eastern Sudan, were included. The patients were recruited during a peak and the end of a malaria season and during a dry season between 2007 and 2008. Based on clinical findings and exclusion of other causes of MS, the former patients were presumed to be infected with malaria parasite; thus, the condition was termed as massive malarial splenomegaly (MMS). Rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used for malaria parasite detection. In the MMS group, the parasite rate was 50% and 49% as estimated by microscopy and RDT, respectively. However, the PCR showed higher parasite rate (79.3%, P = 0.000), Plasmodium vivax infection, and mixed infections. The PCR-corrected parasite rate in the MoS and control groups was 73.2% and 3.5%, respectively. The parasite rate as estimated by microscopy was highest at the end of the malaria season and lowest in the dry season; however, the parasite rate estimated by PCR was stable in all study periods. There was significant reduction in spleen size following anti-malaria treatment. In conclusion, the use of PCR had revealed significantly higher parasite rate, P. vivax, and mixed infections in MMS as compared to microscopy, while the RDT was found to be comparable to microscopy and is suggested to complement the use of the latter. The study also disclosed a seasonal variation of patent parasitemia with an overall low parasite count and scarce gametocytaemia in MMS.Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease 03/2011; 70(2):207-12. · 2.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Malaria infections in pregnancy are associated with adverse outcomes for both mother and child. There are few data on hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly, an aberrant immunological response to chronic or recurrent malaria in pregnancy. This retrospective assessment reviewed the impact of mefloquine treatment on pregnant women with suspected hyper-reactive malarial splenomegaly in an area of low malaria transmission in the 1990s, showing significant reductions in spleen size and anemia and anti-malarial antibody titers without any notable negative effect on treated women or their newborns.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 03/2014; · 2.53 Impact Factor