The contribution of GJB2 (Connexin 26) 35delG to age-related hearing impairment and noise-induced hearing loss.
ABSTRACT The common GJB2 (Connexin 26) 35delG mutation might contribute to the development of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL).
GJB2, a gene encoding a gap junction protein expressed in the inner ear, has been suggested to be involved in the potassium recycling pathway in the cochlea. GJB2 mutations account for a large number of individuals with nonsyndromic recessive hearing loss, with 35delG being the most frequent mutation in populations of European origin. Other genes involved in potassium homeostasis have been suggested to be associated with ARHI and NIHL, and distortion product otoacoustic emission distortions indicative of hearing loss alterations have been found in 35delG carriers.
We genotyped 35delG in two distinct sample sets: an ARHI sample set, composed of 2,311 Caucasian samples from nine different centers originating from seven different countries with an age range between 53 and 67 years, and an NIHL sample set consisting of 702 samples from the two extremes of a noise-exposed Polish sample.
After statistical analysis, we were unable to detect an association between 35delG and ARHI, nor between 35delG and NIHL.
Our findings indicate that there is no increased susceptibility in 35delG carriers for the development of ARHI or NIHL.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To investigate the familial correlations and intraclass correlation of age-related hearing impairment (ARHI) in specific frequencies. In addition, heritability estimates were calculated. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter survey in 8 European centers. SUBJECTS: One hundred ninety-eight families consisting of 952 family members, screened by otologic examination and structured interviews. Subjects with general conditions, known to affect hearing thresholds or known otologic cause were excluded from the study. RESULTS: We detected familial correlation coefficients of 0.36, 0.37, 0.36, and 0.30 for 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz, respectively, and correlation coefficients of 0.20 and 0.18 for 4 and 8 kHz, respectively. Variance components analyses showed that the proportion of the total variance attributable to family differences was between 0.32 and 0.40 for 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 kHz and below 0.20 for 4 and 8 kHz. When testing for homogeneity between sib pair types, we observed a larger familial correlation between female than male subjects. Heritability estimates ranged between 0.79 and 0.36 across the frequencies. DISCUSSION: Our results indicate that there is a substantial shared familial effect in ARHI. We found that familial aggregation of ARHI is markedly higher in the low frequencies and that there is a trend toward higher familial aggregation in female compared with male subjects.Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 06/2013; · 1.44 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Despite the clinical utility of genetic diagnosis to address idiopathic sensorineural hearing impairment (SNHI), the current strategy for screening mutations via Sanger sequencing suffers from the limitation that only a limited number of DNA fragments associated with common deafness mutations can be genotyped. Consequently, a definitive genetic diagnosis cannot be achieved in many families with discernible family history. To investigate the diagnostic utility of massively parallel sequencing (MPS), we applied the MPS technique to 12 multiplex families with idiopathic SNHI in which common deafness mutations had previously been ruled out. NimbleGen sequence capture array was designed to target all protein coding sequences (CDSs) and 100 bp of the flanking sequence of 80 common deafness genes. We performed MPS on the Illumina HiSeq2000, and applied BWA, SAMtools, Picard, GATK, Variant Tools, ANNOVAR, and IGV for bioinformatics analyses. Initial data filtering with allele frequencies (<5% in the 1000 Genomes Project and 5400 NHLBI exomes) and PolyPhen2/SIFT scores (>0.95) prioritized 5 indels (insertions/deletions) and 36 missense variants in the 12 multiplex families. After further validation by Sanger sequencing, segregation pattern, and evolutionary conservation of amino acid residues, we identified 4 variants in 4 different genes, which might lead to SNHI in 4 families compatible with autosomal dominant inheritance. These included p.R75Q, p.T381M, p.S680F, and p.E1256K. Among them, p.S680F and p.E1256K were novel. In conclusion, MPS allows genetic diagnosis in multiplex families with idiopathic SNHI by detecting mutations in relatively uncommon deafness genes.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(2):e57369. · 3.53 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between external and intrinsic/genetic factors. Based on mice studies, one of the most interesting candidate gene for NIHL susceptibility is CDH23-encoding cadherin 23, a component of the stereocilia tip links. The aim of this study was to analyze selected CDH23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and to evaluate their interaction with environmental and individual factors in respect to susceptibility for NIHL in humans. A study group consisted of 314 worst-hearing and 313 best-hearing subjects exposed to occupational noise, selected out of 3,860 workers database. Five SNPs in CDH23 were genotyped using real-time PCR. Subsequently, the main effect of genotype and its interaction with selected environmental and individual factors were evaluated. The significant results within the main effect of genotype were obtained for the SNP rs3752752, localized in exon 21. The effect was observed in particular in the subgroup of young subjects and in those exposed to impulse noise; CC genotype was more frequent among susceptible subjects, whereas genotype CT appeared more often among resistant to noise subjects. The effect of this polymorphism was not modified by none of environmental/individual factors except for blood pressure; however, the latter one should be further investigated. Smoking was shown as an independent factor determining NIHL development. The results of this study confirm that CDH23 genetic variant may modify the susceptibility to NIHL development in humans, as it was earlier proven in mice. Because the differences between the 2 study groups were not necessarily related to susceptibility to noise but they also were prone to age-related cochlear changes, these results should be interpreted with caution until replication in another population.Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 02/2014; 35(2):358-65. · 1.44 Impact Factor