A tertiary care-primary care partnership model for medically complex and fragile children and youth with special health care needs.
ABSTRACT To evaluate the impact of a tertiary care center special needs program that partners with families and primary care physicians to ensure seamless inpatient and outpatient care and assist in providing medical homes.
Up to 3 years of preenrollment and postenrollment data were compared for patients in the special needs program from July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2005.
A tertiary care center pediatric hospital and medical school serving urban and rural patients.
A total of 227 of 230 medically complex and fragile children and youth with special needs who had a wide range of chronic disorders and were enrolled in the special needs program.
Care coordination provided by a special needs program pediatric nurse case manager with or without a special needs program physician.
Preenrollment and postenrollment tertiary care center resource utilization, charges, and payments.
A statistically significant decrease was found in the number of hospitalizations, number of hospital days, and tertiary care center charges and payments, and an increase was found in the use of outpatient services. Aggregate data revealed a decrease in hospital days from 7926 to 3831, an increase in clinic visits from 3150 to 5420, and a decrease in tertiary care center payments of $10.7 million. The special needs program budget for fiscal year 2005 had a deficit of $400,000.
This tertiary care-primary care partnership model improved health care and reduced costs with relatively modest institutional support.
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ABSTRACT: To provide the first nationally representative data on total health care expenses, out-of-pocket health care expenses, and information on the extent to which out-of-pocket expenses are financially burdensome for families of children with special health care needs (CSHCN). To also compare utilization and expenditure patterns for children with and without special health care needs. We used data from the 2000 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). We present univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistics on utilization and expenditures adjusted for the complex sample design. The 2000 MEPS data set contains 6965 children younger than 18 years. Using the CSHCN definition adopted by the federal Maternal and Child Health Bureau and operationalized using the CSHCN Screener, 949 children (15.6%) were identified as children with special health care needs. Compared with other children, CSHCN had 3 times higher health care expenditures (2099 dollars vs 628 dollars; P<.01). The 15.6% of CSHCN accounted for 42.1% of total medical care costs (excluding dental costs) and 33.6% of total health care costs (including dental costs) attributed to children in 2000. Families of CSHCN were best protected against inpatient hospital care expenses and most exposed to dental care expenses. Families of CSHCN experiencing high out-of-pocket expenses (exceeding 5% of family income) were approximately 11 times more likely to be from households with incomes below 200% of the federal poverty level (odds ratio, 10.9; 95% confidence interval, 3.55-33.76) than to be from families with incomes at or above 400% of the federal poverty level. Families with CSHCN experience much higher expenditures, including out-of-pocket expenditures, than other children. Insurance plays an important protective role for families of CSHCN, but it still provides incomplete protection. Health policy changes that would extend the breadth and depth of insurance coverage are needed to ensure that all families of CSHCN are protected against burdensome expenses.Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine 01/2005; 159(1):10-7. · 4.28 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The literature related to medically fragile children (MFC) is analyzed, and a model is generated to improve quality of care and cost effectiveness. The sources of stress for families include home care professionals, respite care, financial concerns, and limited community resources. Children cared for in hospitals often experience less than desirable quality outcomes. Community-based pediatric extended care facilities may be a means of reducing family stress, improving physiologic and developmental outcomes, and reducing cost. Case management may significantly reduce parental stress and improve the quality of life for these children. Additional systematic study of care options for MFC is essential.Issues in Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing 12/2001; 25(1):1-20.
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ABSTRACT: When deciding how much hospital resources should be allocated to comprehensive primary care clinics for children with multisystem disorders, it is important to consider all of the non-primary care revenue streams associated with these children as well as the effects of a comprehensive primary care program on access and quality. The objectives of this study were, first, to determine costs as well as the payments associated with hospital ambulatory and inpatient services for children with multisystem disorders followed by a comprehensive primary care clinic; and, second, to determine the effect of enrollment in a hospital-based comprehensive primary care clinic on ambulatory and inpatient utilization patterns and expenditures for children with multisystem disorders. The study population for the payment analysis consisted of 1012 children of all ages who were seen in the Special Primary Care Clinic (SPCC) in 2001. For these children, outcomes included direct costs, total (direct plus allocated overhead) costs, and payments per patient per 365 days after their first SPCC visit in 2001. A total of 175 of these patients were 4 years of age or older and had no SPCC visit before their first visit in 2001. We compared utilization and expenditures for the 175 children during the year before enrollment in SPCC with those in the year after enrollment. The Children's Hospital administrative database was used to document direct costs, total costs, and payments by type of service for 365 days after an index visit. Ambulatory services included medical and surgical ambulatory, inpatient, emergency department (ED), and ancillary services. We determined the proportion of children who had visits; the visit rates per 100 child-years; and the average total and direct costs per visit, per child with a visit, and per child-year. Inpatient services data included non-intensive care and intensive care hospitalization rates per 100 child-years; the proportion of children hospitalized; their average length of stay; and the average total and direct costs per hospitalization, per patient hospitalized, and per child-year of total patients in the cohort. For 1012 children who were seen in SPCC in 2001, the hospital overall loss per child-year was $956. The loss per child-year for outpatient services was $1554. This loss was partially offset by a gain from inpatient services of $598. For the 175 patients for whom data were available to compare costs before and after enrollment in the SPCC, there were no significant differences in hospitalization or in direct costs per patient for patients who were hospitalized. The average length of non-intensive care stay was lower after enrollment (4.8 vs 11.7). In the surgical specialty analysis, children were more likely to see a surgeon after enrollment (41% vs 21%) and had a higher rate of visits per 100 child-years (102.3 vs 51.4). Differences in medical subspecialty, ancillary, and ED services did not achieve statistical significance. This study suggests that children with multisystem disorders are medically fragile and require frequent hospitalizations and ED visits even with improved primary care. Enrollment in a comprehensive primary care program was associated with a decreased length of stay for non-intensive care hospitalizations and with increased use of surgical services.PEDIATRICS 07/2005; 115(6):e637-42. · 4.47 Impact Factor