Universal and stemness-related tumor antigens: Potential use in cancer immunotherapy
- SourceAvailable from: Mohamed Labib Salem[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) need to survive cancer treatments with a specific end goal to provide new, more differentiated, metastatic-prone cancerous cells. This happens through diverse signals delivered within the tumor microenvironment where ample evidence indicates that altered developmental signaling pathways play an essential role in maintaining CSCs and accordingly the survival and the progression of the tumor itself. This review summarizes findings on the immunobiological properties of CSCs as compared with cancerous non-stem cells involving the expression of immunological molecules, cytokines and tumor antigens as well as the roles of the Notch, Wnt and Hedgehog pathways in the brain, breast and colon CSCs. We concluded that if CSCs are the main driving force behind tumor support and growth then understanding the molecular mechanisms and the immunological properties directing these cells for immune tolerance is of great clinical significance. Such knowledge will contribute to designing better targeted therapies that could prevent tumor recurrence and accordingly significantly improve cancer treatments and patient survival.Cytotechnology 12/2014; DOI:10.1007/s10616-014-9830-0 · 1.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The concept of therapeutic cancer vaccines is based on the activation of the immune system against tumor cells after the presentation of tumor antigens. Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown great potential as delivery systems for cancer vaccines as they potentiate the co-delivery of tumor-associated antigens and adjuvants to dendritic cells (DCs), insuring effective activation of the immune system against tumor cells. In this review, the immunological mechanisms behind cancer vaccines, including the role of DCs in the stimulation of T lymphocytes and the use of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands as adjuvants will be discussed. An overview of each of the three essential components of a therapeutic cancer vaccine - antigen, adjuvant and delivery system - will be provided with special emphasis on the potential of particulate delivery systems for cancer vaccines, in particular those made of biodegradable aliphatic polyesters, such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL). Some of the factors that can influence NP uptake by DCs, including size, surface charge, surface functionalization and route of administration, will also be considered.Journal of Controlled Release 03/2013; 168(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jconrel.2013.03.010 · 7.26 Impact Factor
- Encyclopedia of Biomedical Polymers and Polymeric Biomaterials, 01/2013: chapter Aliphatic Polyesters: Particulate Vaccine Delivery; Taylor and Francis Group..