Adductor-related groin pain in competitive athletes. Role of adductor enthesis, magnetic resonance imaging, and entheseal pubic cleft injections.
ABSTRACT Adductor dysfunction is a condition that can cause groin pain in competitive athletes, but the source of the pain has not been established and no specific interventions have been evaluated. We previously defined a magnetic resonance imaging protocol to visualize adductor enthesopathy. The aim of this study was to elucidate, in the context of adductor-related groin pain in the competitive athlete, the role of the adductor enthesis (origin), the relevance of adductor enthesopathy diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging, and the efficacy of entheseal pubic cleft injections of local anesthetic and steroids.
We reviewed the findings in a consecutive series of twenty-four competitive athletes who had presented to our sports medicine clinic with groin pain secondary to adductor longus dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to assess the adductor longus origin for the presence or absence of enthesopathy. Seven patients (Group 1) had no evidence of enthesopathy on magnetic resonance imaging, and seventeen patients (Group 2) had enthesopathy confirmed on magnetic resonance imaging. All patients were treated with a single pubic cleft injection of local anesthetic and steroid into the adductor enthesis. At one year after this treatment, the patients were assessed for recurrence of symptoms.
On clinical reassessment five minutes after the injection, all twenty-four athletes reported resolution of the groin pain. At one year, none of the seven patients in Group 1 had experienced a recurrence. Sixteen of the seventeen patients in Group 2 had a recurrence of the symptoms (p < 0.001) at a mean of five weeks (range, one to sixteen weeks) after the injection.
A single entheseal pubic cleft injection can be expected to afford at least one year of relief of adductor-related groin pain in a competitive athlete with normal findings on a magnetic resonance imaging scan; however, it should be employed only as a diagnostic test or short-term treatment for a competitive athlete with evidence of enthesopathy on magnetic resonance imaging.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: We describe a new imaging sign, the "superior cleft sign", identified at both symphysography and MRI, which should be used as a marker of rectus abdominis/adductor longus attachment tearing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A study population of 25 patients presenting with clinically suspected sportsman's hernia, who had undergone both symphysography and MRI of the groin were included for study. In each case, images were reviewed to determine the presence of a superior cleft, secondary cleft, and or both abnormalities. RESULTS: Images of all patients complaining of groin crease discomfort similar to sportsman's hernia revealed the presence of a superior cleft at the rectus abdominis/adductor longus attachment. This "superior cleft sign" correlated with the side of symptoms in each case, and, in contrast to the previously described secondary cleft along the inferior margin of the inferior pubic ramus, occurred parallel to the inferior margin of the superior pubic ramus. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of the "superior cleft sign" should be sought in addition to the previously described secondary cleft sign in sportspeople presenting with exercise-related groin pain or pubalgia. It should specifically be sought in patients referred with suspected sportsman's hernia.Skeletal Radiology 01/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To document any consistent clinical findings in a large cohort of patients with whiplash associated disorder. Four-year observational study. Large orthopaedic medicolegal practice in the UK. 1025 consecutive cases of chronic whiplash associated disorder. OBSERVATIONAL STUDY OF THE CLINICAL FEATURES OF WHIPLASH ASSOCIATED DISORDER: detailed examination THREE CONSISTENT CLINICAL FEATURES: neck pain; reduced cervical spine range of motion; and myofascial-entheseal dysfunction. With regards to the myofascial-entheseal dysfunction there were trigger points in the upper, middle or lower trapezius; with or without enthesopathy in the lower or middle trapezius. On the basis of this large observational experience we propose a clinically-based definition of chronic whiplash associated disorder: a painful syndrome following acceleration-deceleration injury with neck stiffness; and myofascial-entheseal dysfunction.JRSM short reports. 08/2012; 3(8):57.
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ABSTRACT: Insertional tendinopathy of the adductors and rectus abdominis is common in male athletes, especially in soccer players. It may be worsened by physical activity and it usually limits sport performance. The management goal in the acute phase consists of analgesic and anti-inflammatory drugs and physical rehabilitation. In the early stages of rehabilitation, strengthening exercises of adductors and abdominal muscles, such as postural exercises, have been suggested. In the sub-acute phase, muscular strength is targeted by overload training in the gym or aquatherapy; core stability exercises seem to be useful in this phase. Finally, specific sport actions are introduced by increasingly complex exercises along with a preventive program to limit pain recurrences.Muscles, ligaments and tendons journal. 04/2012; 2(2):142-8.