Inhibition on Candida albicans biofilm formation using divalent cation chelators (EDTA).
ABSTRACT Candida albicans can readily form biofilms on both inanimate and biological surfaces. In this study we investigated a means of inhibiting biofilm formation using EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid), a divalent cation chelating agent, which has been shown to affect C. albicans filamentation. Candida albicans biofilms were formed in 96-well microtitre plates. Cells were allowed to adhere for 1, 2, and 4 h at 37 degrees C, washed in PBS, and then treated with different concentrations of EDTA (0, 2.5, 25, and 250 mM). EDTA was also added to the standardized suspension prior to adding to the microtiter plate and to a preformed 24 h biofilm. All plates were then incubated at 37 degrees C for an additional 24 h to allow for biofilm formation. The extent and characteristics of biofilm formation were then microscopically assessed and with a semi-quantitative colorimetric technique based on the use of an XTT-reduction assay. Northern blot analysis of the hyphal wall protein (HWP1) expression was also monitored in planktonic and biofilm cells treated with EDTA. Microscopic analysis and colorimetric readings revealed that filamentation and biofilm formation were inhibited by EDTA in a concentration dependent manner. However, preformed biofilms were minimally affected by EDTA (maximum of 31% reduction at 250 mM). The HWP1 gene expression was reduced in EDTA-treated planktonic and biofilm samples. These results indicate that EDTA inhibits C. albicans biofilm formation are most likely through its inhibitory effect on filamentation and indicates the potential therapeutic effects of EDTA. This compound may serve a non-toxic means of preventing biofilm formation on infections with a C. albicans biofilm etiology.
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ABSTRACT: Biofilm formation by Candida species is a major contribute to their pathogenic potential.The aim of this study was to determine in vitro effects of EDTA, cycloheximide, and heparin-benzyl alcohol preservative on C. albicans (126) and non-albicans (31)vaginal yeast isolates biofilm formations and their susceptibility against three antifungal Etest strips. Results of the crystal violet-assay, indicated that biofilms formation were most commonly observed [100%] for C. kefyr, C. utilis, C. famata, and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, followed by C. glabrata [70%], C. tropicalis [50%], C. albicans [29%], Saccharomyces cerevisiae [0.0%]. EDTA (0.3mg/ml) significantly inhibited biofilm formation in both C. albicans and non-albicans isolates (P=0.0001) presumably due to chelation of necessary metal cations for the process-completion. In contrast, heparin (-benzyl alcohol preservative) stimulated biofilm formation in all tested isolates, but not at significant level (P=0.567). Conversely, cycloheximide significantly (P=0.0001) inhibited biofilm formation in all C. albicans strains(126) and its effect was even 3 fold more pronounced than EDTA inhibition, probably due to its attenuation of proteins (enzymes) and/or complex molecules necessary for biofilm formation. Results also showed that all nonalbicans yeasts isolates were susceptible to 5-flucytosine (MIC50, 0.016 µg/ml; MIC90, 0.064 µg/ml), but 14% of C. albicans isolates were resistant (MIC50, 0.064 µg/ml; MIC90 >32 µg/ml). The MIC50 value of amphotricin B for all C. albicans and non-albicans isolates was at a narrow range of 0.023 µg /ml, and the MIC90 values were 0.047 µg/ml and 0.064 µg/ml respectively, thereby confirming its efficacy as a first line empiric- treatment of Candida spp infections.Bioinformation 01/2013; 9(7):357-62. · 0.50 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Infectious diseases caused by bacteria and fungi are the major cause of morbidity and mortality across the globe. Multi-drug resistance in these pathogens augments the complexity and severity of the diseases. Various studies have shown the role of biofilms in multi-drug resistance, where the pathogen resides inside a protective coat made of extracellular polymeric substances. Since biofilms directly influence the virulence and pathogenicity of a pathogen, it is optimal to employ a strategy that effectively inhibits the formation of biofilm. Pomegranate is a common food and is also used traditionally to treat various ailments. This study assessed the anti-biofilm activity of a methanolic extract of pomegranate against bacterial and fungal pathogens. Methanolic extract of pomegranate was shown to inhibit the formation of biofilms by Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. Apart from inhibiting the formation of biofilm, pomegranate extract disrupted pre-formed biofilms and inhibited germ tube formation, a virulence trait, in C. albicans. Characterization of the methanolic extract of pomegranate revealed the presence of ellagic acid (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy-chromeno[5,4,3-cde]chromene-5,10-dione) as the major component. Ellagic acid is a bioactive tannin known for its antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory properties. Further studies revealed the ability of ellagic acid to inhibit the growth of all species in suspension at higher concentrations (>75 μg ml(-1)) and biofilm formation at lower concentrations (<40 μg ml(-1)) which warrants further investigation of the potential of ellagic acid or peel powders of pomegranate for the treatment of human ailments.Biofouling 08/2013; · 3.40 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Recently we described the pH dependence of activity for a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selected from a combinatorial library. In the current work we report on the effects of toxic ions (Cu(2+), Zn(2+), and F(-)) and the chelator EDTA on the activity profiles of one member of this family, the 12-residue cationic antimicrobial peptide *ARVA, against a panel of microorganisms. All four ions exhibited either synergy or additivity with *ARVA for all organisms tested with the exception of *ARVA combined with NaF against Candida albicans which exhibited indifference. CuCl2 and ZnCl2 exhibited synergy with *ARVA against both the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Gram positive Staphylococcus aureus as well as strong additivity against E. coli at submillimolar concentrations. The chelator EDTA was synergistic with *ARVA against the two Gram negative organisms but showed only simple additivity with S. aureus and C. albicans despite their much lower MICs with EDTA. This effect may be related to the known differences in the divalent ion binding properties of the Gram negative LPS layer as compared to the peptidoglycan layer of the Gram positive organism. Unlike the other ions, NaF showed only additivity or indifference when combined with *ARVA and required much higher concentrations for activity. The yeast C. albicans did not show synergy or strong additivity with any of the inhibitory compounds tested. The effects of toxic ions and chelators observed here have important implications for applications using CAMPs and for the design of novel formulations involving CAMPs. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially active peptides and proteins.Biochimica et biophysica acta. 05/2014;