Effect of push frequency and strategy variations on economy and perceived exertion during wheelchair propulsion.
ABSTRACT Wheelchair locomotion is a cyclical activity and participants are free to select any push frequency-propulsion strategy combination that suits their needs at a given power output. The aim of the study was to examine the physiological effects of varying push frequency and strategy on pushing economy. Twelve male, able-bodied participants completed four, randomly assigned, 5-min bouts of submaximal exercise at 32 W on a wheelchair ergometer. Each bout of exercise combined two different push frequencies (40 and 70 push min(-1)), with one of two different push strategies [synchronous (SYN): both arms pushing together, and asynchronous: one arm applying force to the wheel at a time). Physiological measures included oxygen uptake ( VO(2)), heart rate (HR) and blood lactate [La](b )concentration. Differentiated ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also recorded (overall, local and central). Separate ANOVA were used for VO(2), HR, [La](b) and RPE as the dependent variables. Where significant differences were identified, a Bonferroni post hoc test was used. The main effect for push frequency by strategy was significant for VO(2) ( P<0.01). Scrutiny of the HR values showed that the SYN 40 condition was significantly less stressful than all other frequency-strategy combinations ( P<0.01). RPE data supported these findings although they were found to be non-significant. When looking at [La](b,) both of the main effects were also significant showing the concentration was lower on average when the push rate was 40 as opposed to 70 (1.65 vs 2.14 mmol l(-1); P<0.01). This study provides further evidence that a low push frequency provides the most economical form of wheelchair propulsion especially when combined with a SYN strategy.
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ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to determine whether the pedaling frequency of cycling at a constant metabolic cost contributes to the pattern of fiber-type glycogen depletion. On 2 separate days, eight men cycled for 30 min at approximately 85% of individual aerobic capacity at pedaling frequencies of either 50 or 100 rev.min-1. Muscle biopsy samples (vastus lateralis) were taken immediately prior to and after exercise. Individual fibers were classified as type I (slow twitch), or type II (fast twitch), using a myosin adenosine triphosphatase stain, and their glycogen content immediately prior to and after exercise quantified via microphotometry of periodic acid-Schiff stain. The 30-min exercise bout resulted in a 46% decrease in the mean optical density (D) of type I fibers during the 50 rev.min-1 condition [0.52 (0.07) to 0.28 (0.04) D units; mean (SEM)] which was not different (P > 0.05) from the 35% decrease during the 100 rev.min-1 condition [0.48 (0.04) to 0.31 (0.05) D units]. In contrast, the mean D in type II fibers decreased 49% during the 50 rev.min-1 condition [0.53 (0.06) to 0.27 (0.04) units]. This decrease was greater (P < 0.05) than the 33% decrease observed in the 100 rev.min-1 condition [0.48 (0.04) to 0.32 (0.06) units). In conclusion, cycling at the same metabolic cost at 50 rather than 100 rev.min-1 results in greater type II fiber glycogen depletion. This is attributed to the increased muscle force required to meet the higher resistance per cycle at the lower pedal frequency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 01/1992; 65(4):360-4.
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ABSTRACT: To determine the effects of cycling experience, fitness level, and power output on preferred and most economical cycling cadences: 1) the preferred cadence (PC) of 12 male cyclists, 10 male runners, and 10 less-trained male noncyclists was determined at 75, 100, 150, 200, and 250 W for cyclists and runners and 75, 100, 125, 150, and 175 W for the less-trained group; and 2) steady-state aerobic demand was determined at six cadences (50, 65, 80, 95, 110 rpm and PC) at 100, 150, and 200 W for cyclists and runners and 75, 100, and 150 W for less-trained subjects. Cyclists and runners (VO2max: 70.7 +/- 4.1 and 72.5 +/- 2.2 mL.kg-1.min-1, respectively) maintained PC between 90 and 100 rpm at all power outputs and both groups selected similar cadences at each power output. In contrast, the less-trained group (VO2max = 44.2 +/- 2.8 mL.kg-1.min-1) selected lower cadences at all common power outputs and reduced cadence from approximately 80 rpm at 75 W to 65 rpm at 175 W. The preferred cadences of all groups were significantly higher than their respective most economical cadences at all power outputs. Changes in power output had little effect on the most economical cadence, which was between 53.3 and 59.9 rpm, in all groups. It was concluded that cycling experience and minimization of aerobic demand are not critical determinants of PC in well-trained individuals. It was speculated that less-trained noncyclists, who cycled at a higher percentage of VO2max, may have selected lower PC to reduce aerobic demand.Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 10/1997; 29(9):1225-32. · 4.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To study the effect of different cycle frequencies on cardio-respiratory responses and propulsion technique in hand-rim wheelchair propulsion, experienced wheelchair sportsmen (WS group; n=6) and non-wheel chair users (NW group; n=6) performed wheelchair exercise tests on a motor-driven treadmill. The WS group wheeled at velocities of 0.55, 0.83, 1.11 and 1.39 m s–1 and a slope of 2. The NW group wheeled at 0.83, 1.11 and 1.39 m s–1 and a 1 slope. In each test, a 3-min period at a freely chosen cycle frequency (FCF: 100%) was followed by four 3-min blocks of paced cycle frequencies at 60%, 80%, 120% and 140% FCF. Effects of both cycle frequency and velocity on physiological and propulsion technique parameters were studied.Analysis of variance showed a significant effect (p<0.05) of cycle frequency on oxygen cost and gross mechanical efficiency in both the WS and NW group. This indicated the existence of an optimum cycle frequency which is close to the FCF at any given velocity. The optimum cycle frequency increased with velocity from 0.67 to 1.03 cps over the range studied (p< 0.05). Oxygen cost was 10% less at 100% FCF than at 60% or 140% FCF. Gross mechanical efficiency for the WS group at 100% FCF was 8.5%, 9.7%, 10.4% and 10.1%, respectively, at the four velocities. The similarity in the trend of oxygen cost and gross mechanical efficiency data in both the WS and NW groups suggests that an optimum cycle frequency is not merely a consequence of practice alone, but also reflects a physiologically determined optimum, dependent on muscle mechanics, e.g. velocity of contraction and power output of the muscles used.European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology 58(6):625-632.