Long-term effectiveness outcome of melatonin therapy in children with treatment-resistant circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
ABSTRACT To date, there have been no prospective long-term studies of melatonin therapy in children. We report here data from a prospective follow-up study of 44 children with neurodevelopmental disabilities and treatment-resistant circadian rhythm sleep disorders (CRSD) who had participated in a placebo controlled, double blind cross-over trial of sustained-release melatonin. The follow-up study involved a structured telephone interview of caregivers every 3 months for upto 3.8 yr. The caregivers provided ratings of satisfaction, adverse effects, benefits, persistence with treatment and additional medications. Changes in melatonin dose were recorded. Open ended questions were included to capture caregivers' impressions and comments concerning melatonin therapy. Adverse reaction to melatonin therapy and development of tolerance were not evident. Better sleep was associated with reported improvement in health, behavior and learning. At the end of the study, the parental comments regarding the effectiveness of long-term melatonin therapy were highly positive. Parents whose children had sleep maintenance difficulties expressed a wish to have a commercially available controlled-release melatonin product which would promote sleep for 8-10 hr. Hypnotics for children with CRSD should be considered a second line of treatment for those who fail to respond to sleep hygiene and/or melatonin.
Article: New approaches in the management of insomnia: weighing the advantages of prolonged-release melatonin and synthetic melatoninergic agonists.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Hypnotic effects of melatonin and melatoninergic drugs are mediated via MT(1) and MT(2) receptors, especially those in the circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which acts on the hypothalamic sleep switch. Therefore, they differ fundamentally from GABAergic hypnotics. Melatoninergic agonists primarily favor sleep initiation and reset the circadian clock to phases allowing persistent sleep, as required in circadian rhythm sleep disorders. A major obstacle for the use of melatonin to support sleep maintenance in primary insomnia results from its short half-life in the circulation. Solutions to this problem have been sought by developing prolonged-release formulations of the natural hormone, or melatoninergic drugs of longer half-life, such as ramelteon, tasimelteon and agomelatine. With all these drugs, improvements of sleep are statistically demonstrable, but remain limited, especially in primary chronic insomnia, so that GABAergic drugs may be indicated. Melatoninergic agonists do not cause next-day hangover and withdrawal effects, or dependence. They do not induce behavioral changes, as sometimes observed with z-drugs. Despite otherwise good tolerability, the use of melatoninergic drugs in children, adolescents, and during pregnancy has been a matter of concern, and should be avoided in autoimmune diseases and Parkinsonism. Problems and limits of melatoninergic hypnotics are compared.Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment 02/2009; 5:341-54. · 1.81 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Backgroud and objective: To evaluate onset and stability of melatonin treatment effectSleep Science. 04/2010; 3(1):`16-21.