Non-small cell lung carcinoma of the superior sulcus: favourable outcomes of combined modality treatment in carefully selected patients.

Department of Surgery, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Lung Cancer (Impact Factor: 3.39). 04/2008; 59(3):385-90. DOI: 10.1016/j.lungcan.2007.08.028
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The combination of radiotherapy and concurrent chemotherapy followed by surgery (trimodality treatment) is currently regarded as optimal treatment for non-small cell lung cancer of the superior sulcus (SST) or Pancoast tumour. The possibility to administer intensive combined modality treatment is influenced by tumour stage, comorbidity and performance status of these patients, and therefore a strict patient selection is necessary. This study focuses on patient selection and its results. We retrospectively evaluated choices of treatment and outcome of all patients with SST treated in the Netherlands Cancer Institute from 1994 to 2004. After identification of patients with SST in registration databases, the following characteristics were analyzed: symptoms, comorbidity, tumour stage, treatment characteristics, toxicity, local control, disease-free and overall survival. Fifty-two patients, 37 men and 15 women, were identified. They were diagnosed with stage IIB (27%), stage IIIA (8%), stage IIIB (42%) and stage IV (23%). Twelve patients after induction (chemo)radiotherapy underwent surgical resection. In eight patients a pathologic complete response was found. The 2- and 5-year survival after induction treatment and surgery was 75 and 39%, respectively. Other patients did not receive surgical treatment because of stage IV disease (n=12), comorbidity (n=8), irresectability (extensive tumour growth and/or persisting N2-3 status; n=14) or insufficient response to induction treatment (n=6). Eleven patients were treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (5-year survival 20%) and 17 patients with (sequential) radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy (5-year survival 6%). Local recurrence rates were 0% after induction treatment and surgical resection, 32% after concurrent chemoradiotherapy and 72% after (sequential) radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy. In conclusion, only 30% of M0 patients with SST were eligible for combined modality treatment followed by surgery. In this subgroup, concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery was associated with excellent local control and acceptable survival.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) GLOBOCAN World Cancer Report, lung cancer affects more than 1 million people a year worldwide. In Greece according to the 2008 GLOBOCAN report, there were 6,667 cases recorded, 18% of the total incidence of all cancers in the population. Furthermore, there were 6,402 deaths due to lung cancer, 23.5% of all deaths due to cancer. Therefore, in our country, lung cancer is the most common and deadly form of cancer for the male population. The most important prognostic indicator in lung cancer is the extent of disease. The Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (UICC) and the American Joint Committee for Cancer Staging (AJCC) developed the tumour, node, and metastases (TNM) staging system which attempts to define those patients who might be suitable for radical surgery or radical radiotherapy, from the majority, who will only be suitable for palliative measures. Surgery has an important part for the therapy of patients with lung cancer. "Lobectomy is the gold standard treatment". This statement may be challenged in cases of stage Ia cancer or in patients with limited pulmonary function. In these cases an anatomical segmentectomy with lymph node dissection is an acceptable alternative. Chest wall invasion is not a contraindication to resection. En-bloc rib resection and reconstruction is the treatment of choice. N2 disease represents both a spectrum of disease and the interface between surgical and non-surgical treatment of lung cancer Evidence from trials suggests that multizone or unresectable N2 disease should be treated primarily by chemoradiotherapy. There may be a role for surgery if N2 is downstaged to N0 and lobectomy is possible, but pneumonectomy is avoidable. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is considered a systemic disease at diagnosis, because the potential for hematogenous and lymphogenic metastases is very high. The efficacy of surgical intervention for SCLC is not clear. Lung cancer resection can be performed using several surgical techniques. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is a safe, efficient, well accepted and widespread technique among thoracic surgeons. The 5-year survival rate following complete resection of lung cancer is stage dependent. Incomplete resection rarely is useful and cures the patient.
    Journal of thoracic disease. 09/2013; 5(Suppl 4):S425-S439.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Data supporting use of concurrent chemoradiation in locally advanced lung cancers comes from clinical trials from developed countries. Applicability and outcomes of such schedules in developing countries is not widely reported. There are various challenges in delivering chemoradiation in locally advanced non small cell lung cancer in developing countries which is highlighted by an audit of patients treated with chemoradiation in our center. This article deals with the challenges in the context of a developing country. We conclude that sequential chemoradiotherapy is better tolerated than concurrent chemoradiation in Indian patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancers. Patients with stage IIIa, normal weight or overweight, and adequate baseline pulmonary function should be offered concurrent chemoradiation.
    South Asian journal of cancer. 01/2013; 2(4):265-271.
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A Pancoast tumor, also called a pulmonary sulcus tumor or superior sulcus tumor, is a tumor of the pulmonary apex. It is a type of lung cancer defined primarily by its location situated at the top end of either the right or left lung. It typically spreads to nearby tissues such as the ribs and vertebrae. Most Pancoast tumors are non-small cell cancers. The growing tumor can cause compression of a brachiocephalic vein, subclavian artery, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal nerve, vagus nerve, or, characteristically, compression of a sympathetic ganglion resulting in a range of symptoms known as Horner's syndrome. Pancoast tumors are named for Henry Pancoast, a US radiologist, who described them in 1924 and 1932.The treatment of a Pancoast lung cancer may differ from that of other types of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Its position and close proximity to vital structures may make surgery difficult. As a result, and depending on the stage of the cancer, treatment may involve radiation and chemotherapy given prior to surgery. Surgery may consist of the removal of the upper lobe of a lung together with its associated structures as well as mediastinal lymphadenectomy. Surgical access may be via thoracotomy from the back or the front of the chest and modification. Careful patient selection, improvements in imaging such as the role of PET-CT in restaging of tumors, radiotherapy and surgical advances, the management of previously inoperable lesions by a combined experienced thoracic-neurosurgical team and prompt recognition and therapy of postoperative complications has greatly increased local control and overall survival for patients with these tumors.
    Journal of thoracic disease. 03/2014; 6(Suppl 1):S180-S193.