Vasculoprotective potential of olive oil components. Mol Nutr Food Res

Università degli Studi G. d'Annunzio Chieti e Pescara, Chieta, Abruzzo, Italy
Molecular Nutrition & Food Research (Impact Factor: 4.6). 10/2007; 51(10):1225-34. DOI: 10.1002/mnfr.200600305
Source: PubMed


Epidemiological and clinical studies found that the traditional Mediterranean-style diet is associated with significantly lower mortality from coronary artery disease. Although it is difficult to isolate individual dietary factors, cumulative evidence suggests that olive oil, used as primary source of fat by Mediterranean populations, may play a key role in the observed cardiovascular benefit. Olive oil is a priceless source of vitamins and polyphenolic antioxidants, and has a balanced ratio of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids. There are multiple mechanisms by which olive oil might impact the development of atherosclerosis. Olive oil decreases LDL-cholesterol and increases HDL-cholesterol, and also reduces oxidative stress due to polyphenols, which are able to scavenge free radicals and protect LDL from oxidation. In addition, olive oil components may interfere with the inflammatory response within atherosclerotic lesion, by inhibiting endothelial activation involved in monocyte recruitment during early atherogenesis and macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes, thus improving vascular stability. Other vasculoprotective mechanisms by olive oil components derive from anti-thrombotic and anti-hypertensive actions. The available data support the need to preserve certain dietary traditions, such as olive oil consumption, to counteract the burden of cardiovascular disease.

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Available from: Egeria Scoditti, Apr 10, 2014
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    • "Our data strengthen the nutritional relevance of the phenolic fraction in olive oil in the aforementioned claims for the health promoting effects of the MD. Virgin olive oil, an excellent source of oleic acid, vitamin E and nonessential nutrients , greatly contributes to the low incidence of CVD associated with an adherence to this dietary habit in that almost all cardiovascular risk factors can be positively modulated by olive oil constituents (Carluccio et al., 2007). In this respect, there is a general agreement that the health promoting effects of olive oil intake result from the combined properties of all its constituents, including polyphenols (López-Miranda et al., 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is a phenolic antioxidant naturally occurring in virgin olive oil. In this study, we investigated the possible protective effects of HT on the oxidative and morphological alterations induced by mercury (Hg) in intact human erythrocytes. These cells preferentially accumulate this toxic heavy metal; more importantly, Hg-induced echinocyte formation correlates with increased coagulability of these cells. Our results indicate that HT treatment (10-50 µM) prevents the increase in hemolysis and Reactive Oxigen Species (ROS) generation induced by exposure of cells to micromolar HgCl2 concentrations as well as the decrease in GSH intracellular levels; moreover, as indicated by scanning electron microscopy, the morphological alterations are also significantly reduced by HT co-treatment. Taken together our data provide the first experimental evidence that HT has the potential to counteract mercury toxicity. The reported effect may be regarded as an additional mechanism underlying the beneficial cardio-protective effects of this dietary antioxidant, also endowed with significant anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory properties
    Food and Chemical Toxicology 05/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2015.04.029. · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "Unlike other vegetable oils, the olive oil contains high doses of micronutrients such as polyphenols (0.1-1g/kg), tocopherols, triterpenoids and some other components [108]. Virgin olive oil is especially enriched with beneficial micronutrients because refination of olive oil leads to the loss of 80% of micronutrients. "
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    ABSTRACT: The endothelium represents not only a simple cellular monolayer that lines the vascular tree in humans and other vertebrates. Depending on the location, the endothelium shows significant morphological and functional heterogeneity through differentiated expression of pro- and anticoagulant factors, presence and frequency of intercellular contacts, variable contractility, cell shape, and volume. Altogether, these properties are crucial for adjustment of the endothelial function and further maintenance of the adequate homeostasis in response in local microenvironmental changes. Endothelial cells (ECs) play a critical role in coordinated regulation of blood flow. This is achieved due to the capacity of ECs to create the active anti-thrombotic surface that supports blood fluidity and transfer of blood cells and biomolecules. However, in certain vascular regions that can occur in inflamed sites or in sites with high hydrodynamic shear stress, ECs could lost their anti-thrombotic properties and switch their normal quiescent phenotype towards the prothrombotic, proadhesion, and proinflammatory state. In such an athero-prone site, the proper endothelial function is impaired that increases risk for formation of the atherosclerotic plaque. The endothelial dysfunction not only precedes atherosclerosis but greatly contributes to atherogenesis in all disease stages. Healthy lifestyle and regular intake of correct antioxidant-rich diet such as fresh fruits, vegetables, olive oil, red wine, and tea have beneficial effects on endothelial function and could therefore reduce the cardiovascular risk.
    Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry 02/2015; 15(4). DOI:10.2174/1389557515666150226114031 · 2.90 Impact Factor
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    • "c o m Nutrition 31 (2015) 834–840 reduced mortality risk by 24% in men and women with previous myocardial infarction [7]. The proposed mechanisms by which olive oil and mainly extra virgin olive oil can exert its beneficial effects on CVD risk include improvement of lipid profile, through a decrease in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in the ratio of HDL to TC [8] [9] [10] [11], reduction in LDL-C susceptibility to oxidation, amelioration of oxidative vascular damage [10] [12], and improved endothelial function and blood pressure [12] [13]. Another intervention that may reduce CVD risk in patients with MetS is increasing the relative abundance of u-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to verify if extra virgin olive oil and fish oil have a synergistic effect on lipid and oxidative stress parameters in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS). This intervention study included 102 patients (81 women and 21 men) with MetS (mean age 51.45 ± 8.27 y) from the ambulatory center of the University Hospital of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. Patients were randomly assigned to one of four groups: Patients in the control group (CG) were instructed to maintain their usual diet; the second group (fish oil group [FO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids (10 capsules); the third group (extra virgin olive oil group [OO]) received 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil at lunch and dinner; and the fourth group (fish oil and extra virgin olive oil group [FOO]) received 3 g/d of fish oil ω-3 fatty acids and 10 mL/d of extra virgin olive oil. MetS related markers and oxidative stress were measured at baseline and after 90 d. Differences across treatment groups showed a statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) in total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) when FOO was compared with CG and OO, respectively. Hydroperoxides showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) when FOO was compared with CG, whereas there was an increase in total peroxyl radical-trapping antioxidant potential/advanced oxidation protein products (TRAP/AOPP; P < 0.05) in FOO when compared with FO. In relation to baseline values, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in LDL-C values, and TC/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and LDL-C/HDL-C indexes in FOO. There was also a decrease (P < 0.05) in hydroperoxides, in AOPP and in AOPP/TRAP index in FOO, and an increase (P < 0.05) in TRAP/AOPP index in FOO and in TRAP/uric acid ratio in OO. The present study provides evidence that increased dietary ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and extra virgin olive oil have beneficial synergistic effects on lipid metabolism and oxidative stress in patients with MetS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Nutrition 01/2015; 31(6). DOI:10.1016/j.nut.2014.12.016 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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