Regulation of cell cycle progression and gene expression by H2A deubiquitination.
ABSTRACT Post-translational histone modifications have important regulatory roles in chromatin structure and function. One example of such modifications is histone ubiquitination, which occurs predominately on histone H2A and H2B. Although the recent identification of the ubiquitin ligase for histone H2A has revealed important roles for H2A ubiquitination in Hox gene silencing as well as in X-chromosome inactivation, the enzyme(s) involved in H2A deubiquitination and the function of H2A deubiquitination are not known. Here we report the identification and functional characterization of the major deubiquitinase for histone H2A, Ubp-M (also called USP16). Ubp-M prefers nucleosomal substrates in vitro, and specifically deubiquitinates histone H2A but not H2B in vitro and in vivo. Notably, knockdown of Ubp-M in HeLa cells results in slow cell growth rates owing to defects in the mitotic phase of the cell cycle. Further studies reveal that H2A deubiquitination by Ubp-M is a prerequisite for subsequent phosphorylation of Ser 10 of H3 and chromosome segregation when cells enter mitosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ubp-M regulates Hox gene expression through H2A deubiquitination and that blocking the function of Ubp-M results in defective posterior development in Xenopus laevis. This study identifies the major deubiquitinase for histone H2A and demonstrates that H2A deubiquitination is critically involved in cell cycle progression and gene expression.
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ABSTRACT: Since the earliest observations of cells undergoing mitosis, it has been clear that there is an intimate relationship between the cell cycle and nuclear chromatin architecture. The nuclear envelope and chromatin undergo robust assembly and disassembly during the cell cycle, and transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of histone biogenesis and chromatin modification is controlled in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Chromatin binding proteins and chromatin modifications in turn influence the expression of critical cell cycle regulators, the accessibility of origins for DNA replication, DNA repair, and cell fate. In this review we aim to provide an integrated discussion of how the cell cycle machinery impacts nuclear architecture and vice-versa. We highlight recent advances in understanding cell cycle-dependent histone biogenesis and histone modification deposition, how cell cycle regulators control histone modifier activities, the contribution of chromatin modifications to origin firing for DNA replication, and newly identified roles for nucleoporins in regulating cell cycle gene expression, gene expression memory and differentiation. We close with a discussion of how cell cycle status may impact chromatin to influence cell fate decisions, under normal contexts of differentiation as well as in instances of cell fate reprogramming.Frontiers in Genetics 02/2015; 6.
- Frontiers in Bioscience 01/2012; 17(1):1051. · 4.25 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) is the main system for controlled protein degradation and a key regulator of fundamental cellular processes. The dependency of cancer cells on a functioning UPS has made this an attractive target for development of drugs that show selectivity for tumor cells. Deubiquitinases (DUBs, ubiquitin isopeptidases) are components of the UPS that catalyze the removal of ubiquitin moieties from target proteins or polyubiquitin chains, resulting in altered signaling or changes in protein stability. A number of DUBs regulate processes associated with cell proliferation and apoptosis, and as such represent candidate targets for cancer therapeutics. The majority of DUBs are cysteine proteases and are likely to be more "druggable" than E3 ligases. Cysteine residues in the active sites of DUBs are expected to be reactive to various electrophiles. Various compounds containing α,β−unsaturated ketones have indeed been demonstrated to inhibit cellular DUB activity. Inhibition of proteasomal cysteine DUB enzymes (i.e. USP14 and UCHL5) can be predicted to be particularly cytotoxic to cancer cells as it leads to blocking of proteasome function and accumulation of proteasomal substrates. We here provide an overall review of DUBs relevant to cancer and of various small molecules which have been demonstrated to inhibit DUB activity.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 11/2014; 147. · 7.75 Impact Factor