Mechanisms of organophosphate toxicity and detoxication with emphasis on studies in Croatia.
ABSTRACT This review comprises studies on the mechanisms of toxicity and detoxication of organophosphorus (OP) compounds done in Croatia in different research areas. One area is the synthesis of antidotes against OP poisoning and their in vivo testing in experimental animals. In vitro studies included in this review focus on the mechanisms of reversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), protection of cholinesterases from inhibition by OPs, and reactivation of phosphylated cholinesterases. The third area comprises distribution profiles of BChE and paraoxonase (PON) phenotypes in selected population groups and the detection of OPs and metabolites in humans. Finally, methods are described for the detection of OP compounds in human blood and other media by means of cholinesterase inhibition.