When ADHD and substance use disorders intersect: relationship and treatment implications.
ABSTRACT There has been increasing interest in the overlap between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and substance use disorders (SUDs). In this report, we describe the developmental relationship between ADHD and SUDs. ADHD alone and in combination with co-occurring psychopathology is a risk factor for the development of SUDs in adulthood. Conversely, approximately one fifth of adults with SUDs have ADHD. Pharmacotherapeutic treatment of ADHD in children reduces the risk for later cigarette smoking and SUDs in adulthood. In contrast, medication treatment alone of adults with ADHD and current SUD is inadequate for both ADHD and SUD. Stimulant diversion continues to be of concern, particularly in older adolescents and young adults.
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ABSTRACT: Objectives Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neuro-behavioural disorder characterised by early onset of persistent inattention–disorganisation and hyperactivity–impulsivity. Symptoms causing significant impairment in psychosocial function commence in childhood and heighten the risk for early substance experimentation and potential development of substance-use disorders (SUD). The research aimed to estimate the occurrence of adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in new treatment cases of adults attending addiction treatment services.Methods The Adult ADHD Symptoms Rating Scale (ASRS) self-administered questionnaire was administered on entry and 2 weeks later for first admissions to inpatient and outpatient addiction treatment settings The ASRS is a validated and reliable 18-item self-report scale derived from the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for ADHD, comprising nine items on inattention and nine items on hyperactivity/impulsivity.Results A total of 47 new treatment cases took part in the study. The occurrence of ADHD among SUDs in this sample was 13% (n = 6). Four of the participants were being treated for Problem Poly Substance use, whereas two participants were being treated for Problem Drug use. None of the participants screening positive for ADHD were being treated for Problem Alcohol use. Of the positively screened cases, all were male, predominantly single and unemployed.Conclusions The ASRS screening instrument may be a useful tool to detect ADHD co-morbidity in SUD treatment-seeking cases. More research is needed to appropriately develop the SUD treatment pathways for adolescent and adult ADHD sufferers in Ireland.09/2013; 30(03). DOI:10.1017/ipm.2013.8
Article: ADHD: Does parenting style matter?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a condition typically arising in childhood, which untreated, can have consequences reaching into adolescence and beyond. Effective pharmacological treatment is available and has become widespread in the West. Outcomes for both the child with ADHD and the parent may be influenced by the nature of interaction between them. The authors of this article aim to review published research examining the interaction between parents and their children with ADHD. A PubMed search was conducted of studies written in English between 2000 and 2007 with the keywords ADHD and parenting. Child ADHD elicits high levels of parental stress and maladaptive parenting. The presence of parental psychopathology is common and influences the parent's response to the child's ADHD symptoms. Optimizing parent-child interaction and parental psychiatric status may improve outcomes for both parent and child.Clinical Pediatrics 07/2008; 47(9):865-72. DOI:10.1177/0009922808319963 · 1.26 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Amphetamine stimulants have been used medically since early in the twentieth century, but they have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic. Although they have long been used effectively to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, amphetamines are now being prescribed increasingly as maintenance therapy for ADHD and narcolepsy in adults, considerably extending the period of potential exposure. Effects of prolonged stimulant treatment have not been fully explored, and understanding such effects is a research priority. Because the pharmacokinetics of amphetamines differ between children and adults, reevaluation of the potential for adverse effects of chronic treatment of adults is essential. Despite information on the effects of stimulants in laboratory animals, profound species differences in susceptibility to stimulant-induced neurotoxicity underscore the need for systematic studies of prolonged human exposure. Early amphetamine treatment has been linked to slowing in height and weight growth in some children. Because the number of prescriptions for amphetamines has increased several fold over the past decade, an amphetamine-containing formulation is the most commonly prescribed stimulant in North America, and it is noteworthy that amphetamines are also the most abused prescription medications. Although early treatment does not increase risk for substance abuse, few studies have tracked the compliance and usage profiles of individuals who began amphetamine treatment as adults. Overall, there is concern about risk for slowed growth in young patients who are dosed continuously, and for substance abuse in patients first medicated in late adolescence or adulthood. Although most adult patients also use amphetamines effectively and safely, occasional case reports indicate that prescription use can produce marked psychological adverse events, including stimulant-induced psychosis. Assessments of central toxicity and adverse psychological effects during late adulthood and senescence of adults who receive prolonged courses of amphetamine treatment are warranted. Finally, identification of the biological factors that confer risk and those that offer protection is also needed to better specify the parameters of safe, long-term, therapeutic administration of amphetamines to adults.Molecular Psychiatry 09/2008; 14(2):123-42. DOI:10.1038/mp.2008.90 · 15.15 Impact Factor