Pathway and gene ontology based analysis of gene expression in a rat model of cerebral ischemic tolerance.
ABSTRACT Ischemic tolerance is a phenomenon whereby a sublethal ischemic insult [ischemic preconditioning (IPC)] provides robust protection against subsequent lethal ischemia. Activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and subsequent new gene transcription are required for tolerance. We utilized the NMDA antagonist, MK801, prior to the IPC stimulus to separate candidate genes from epiphenomenona. Rats were divided into four groups: vehicle/IPC (preconditioned), MK801/IPC (attenuated preconditioning), vehicle/sham (non-preconditioned), and MK801/sham (non-preconditioned). Hippocampi (5/group/time point) were harvested immediately after ischemia as well as 1, 4, and 24 h post-ischemia to profile gene expression patterns using microarray analyses. Extracted mRNAs were pooled and subsequently hybridized to Affymetrix arrays. In addition, groups of rats were sacrificed for Western blot analysis and histological studies. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and gene ontology (GO) analyses were used to identify functionally related groups of genes whose modulation was statistically significant, while hierarchical cluster analysis was used to visualize the fold expression within these groups. Significantly modulated pathways included: MAP kinase signaling pathway, Toll receptor pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathways, and pathways associated with ribosome function and oxidative phosphorylation. Our data suggest that the tolerant brain responds to subsequent ischemic stress by partially downregulating inflammatory and upregulating protein synthesis and energy metabolism pathways.
- Proceedings of The National Academy of Sciences - PNAS. 01/2003;
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP6) and its receptors are expressed in adult and fetal brain. Receptors for BMP6 are upregulated in adult brain after injury, leading to the suggestion that BMP6 is involved in the physiological response to neuronal injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a neuroprotective effect of BMP6 in vivo and in vitro. Lactate dehydrogenase and microtubule-associated protein-2 (MAP-2) activities were used to determine the protective effect of BMP6 against H(2)O(2) in primary cortical cultures. The neuroprotective effects of BMP6 were also studied in chloral hydrate-anesthetized rats. BMP6 or vehicle was injected into right cerebral cortex before transient right middle cerebral artery (MCA) ligation. Animals were killed for triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride staining, caspase-3 immunoreactivity and enzymatic assays, and TUNEL assay. A subgroup of animals were used for locomotor behavioral assays. Application of H(2)O(2) increased lactate dehydrogenase activity and decreased the density of MAP-2(+) neurons in culture. Both responses were attenuated by BMP6 pretreatment. Complementary in vivo studies showed that pretreatment with BMP6 increased motor performance and generated less cerebral infarction induced by MCA ligation/reperfusion in rats. Pretreatment with BMP6 did not alter cerebral blood flow or physiological parameters. There was decreased ischemia-induced caspase-3 immunoreactivity, caspase-3 enzymatic activity, and density of TUNEL-positive cells in ischemic cortex in BMP6-treated animals. BMP6 reduces ischemia/reperfusion injury, perhaps by attenuating molecular events underlying apoptosis.Stroke 10/2001; 32(9):2170-8. · 6.16 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have indicated that proteins in the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily alter damage induced by various neuronal injuries. Of these proteins, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP-7) have unique protective and regenerative effects in stroke animals. Delivery of GDNF or BMP-7 to brain tissue reduced cerebral infarction and improved motor functions in stroke animals. Pretreatment with these factors reduced caspase-3 activity and DNA fragmentation in the ischemic brain region, suggesting that antiapoptotic effects are involved. Beside the protective effects, BMP-7 given after stroke improves locomotor function. These regenerative effects of BMP-7 may involve the enhancement of dendritic growth and remodeling. In this review, we illustrate the neuroprotective and neuroregenerative properties of GDNF and BMP-7 and emphasize their therapeutic potential for stroke.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 03/2005; 105(2):113-25. · 7.79 Impact Factor