Relationship between menthol cigarettes and smoking cessation among African American light smokers

Program in Health Disparities Research, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA.
Addiction (Impact Factor: 4.6). 12/2007; 102(12):1979-86. DOI: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2007.02010.x
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine whether African American light smokers who smoked menthol cigarettes had lower cessation when treated with nicotine replacement therapy and counseling.
Data were derived from a clinical trial that assessed the efficacy of 2 mg nicotine gum (versus placebo) and counseling (motivational interviewing counseling versus Health Education) for smoking cessation among African American light smokers (smoked < or = 10 cigarettes per day).
The sample consisted of 755 African American light smokers.
The primary outcome variable was verified 7-day point-prevalence smoking cessation at 26 weeks follow-up. Verification was by salivary cotinine.
Compared to non-menthol smokers, menthol smokers were younger and less confident to quit smoking (P = 0.023). At 26 weeks post-randomization, 7-day verified abstinence rate was significantly lower for menthol smokers (11.2% versus 18.8% for non-menthol, P = 0.015).
Among African American light smokers, use of menthol cigarettes is associated with lower smoking cessation rates. Because the majority of African American smokers use menthol cigarettes, a better understanding of the mechanism for this lower quit rate is needed.

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    • "While this finding is consistent with recent studies that enrolled both African American and White smokers (Heck, 2009; Signorello, Cai, Tarone, McLaughlin, & Blot, 2009), it contradicts another study conducted by Ahijevych and Parsley (1999) in which they found significant differences in serum cotinine between menthol and nonmenthol smokers, albeit in heavier smokers (Ahijevych & Parsley, 1999). Also, similar to our previous study (Okuyemi, Faseru, et al., 2007) confidence to quit was high in both menthol and non-menthol smokers (7.04–7.90 out of 10). "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking menthol cigarettes is more prevalent among African Americans (AA) compared to Whites. Menthol has been found to be inversely related to smoking cessation among AA, yet little is known about the factors associated with menthol smoking among AA light smokers. This study examines baseline demographic, psychological, and smoking factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes among AA light smokers (≤10 cigarettes per day). Participants (n=540) were enrolled in a double blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of bupropion in combination with health education counseling for smoking cessation. Bivariate differences between menthol and non-menthol smokers were explored and baseline factors associated with smoking menthol cigarettes were identified. Participants averaged 46.5 years in age, predominantly female (66.1%), and smoked an average of 8.0 cpd (SD=2.5). The majority (83.7%) smoked menthol cigarettes. In bivariate analysis, menthol cigarette smokers were younger (mean age: 45 vs. 52 years p<0.0001), were more likely to be female (68% vs. 52% p=0.003) and had smoked for shorter duration (28 vs. 34 years p<0.0001) compared to non-menthol smokers. While depression and withdrawal scores were slightly higher and exhaled carbon monoxide values were lower among menthol smokers, the differences were not statistically significant. Among AA light smokers, younger individuals and females were more likely to smoke menthol cigarettes and may be more susceptible to the health effects of smoking. Appropriately targeted health education campaigns are needed to prevent smoking uptake in this high-risk population.
    Addictive behaviors 07/2011; 36(12):1321-4. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2011.07.015 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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    • "Few studies of smoking topography between AAW and African American men exist without menthol as a part of the investigation [see (Henningfield, et al., 2003; Okuyemi, Faseru, et al., 2007) for literature which also investigates differences related to mentholated smoking]. While research with mentholated cigarettes provide relevant information regarding brand preference and other sociocultural factors among African Americans (Allen & Unger, 2007; Richter, et al., 2008), there is conceivably more to understand about smoking topography patterns in AAW as compared to African American men who do not smoke mentholated cigarettes, especially given that mentholated cigarettes may provide a cooler smoke that can change smoking topography to increase tar, nicotine and carcinogenic absorption (Shields, 2000). "
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    ABSTRACT: Tobacco smoking is a national public health problem that has been associated with numerous adverse health effects, including increased disease and cancer rates. Previous review articles on smoking in specific demographic populations have focused on smoking in women and on smoking in African Americans, but have not considered the dual roles of ethnicity and gender in smoking behavior. African American women (AAW) are an important subgroup to study because they are distinct from non-AAW and their male African American counterparts on biopsychosocial factors that are relevant to smoking behavior. The purpose of the present review paper is to integrate and summarize the current literature on the epidemiology, determinants, and consequences of cigarette smoking among AAW, by contrasting them to relevant comparison groups (non-AAW and African American men). Evidence suggests that AAW are generally more likely to be light smokers and initiate smoking later. The prevalence rates of AAW smokers have decreased over the past 25years, yet AAW are disproportionately affected by several smoking-related illnesses when compared to their ethnic and gender comparison groups. AAW smokers are distinct from relevant comparison groups in metabolic sensitivity to nicotine, aspects of smoking topography, and several psychosocial factors that influence smoking. Although a small literature on smoking in AAW is emerging, further empirical research of AAW smokers could inform the development of tailored interventions for AAW.
    Addictive behaviors 05/2010; 35(5):383-91. DOI:10.1016/j.addbeh.2009.12.014 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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