Effect of atrial electrical remodeling on the efficacy of antiarrhythmic drugs: comparison of amiodarone with I(Kr)- and I(to)/IKur-blockade in vivo.
ABSTRACT Amiodarone is the gold standard in the prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation (AF), but the causes for its superior clinical efficacy are not understood. We hypothesized that atrial electrical remodeling increases the atrial efficacy of amiodarone.
We investigated the effect of an acute intravenous dose of amiodarone on atrial refractory periods (AERP) in sinus rhythm (SR) and after 5, 24, and 72 hours of atrial tachypacing in comparison with the I(Kr) blocker dofetilide and the I(to)/IKur blockers AVE1231 and AVE0118 in five instrumented goats. Electrical remodeling progressively increased the AERP-prolonging effect of 3 mg/kg of AVE1231 and AVE0118 (2-fold increase in AERP at 72 hours vs SR, P < 0.01), but strongly decreased that of 10 mug/kg dofetilide (<0.5-fold, P < 0.05, at 300 and 400 ms basic cycle length). After 5 and 24 hours of tachypacing, the effect of 3 mg/kg amiodarone strongly increased (2-fold, P < 0.01 after 24 hours vs SR). This early gain in AERP prolongation was confirmed in anesthetized pigs with 3.5 hours of atrial tachypacing (2.4-fold increase, P < 0.01). At 72 hours of atrial tachypacing in the goat, however, the early gain was lost and the effect of amiodarone was similar again to that in SR.
Atrial electrical remodeling changed the efficacy of the antiarrhythmic agents in a different way. The favorable efficacy profile of amiodarone during electrical remodeling, particularly the marked increase in AERP prolongation in early electrical remodeling, may explain its superior clinical efficacy over existing antiarrhythmic drugs.
- SourceAvailable from: Hector Barajas Martinez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The action of AVE0118 to prolong effective refractory period (ERP) in atria but not in ventricles is thought to be due to its inhibition of IKur. However, in nonremodeled atria, AVE0118 prolongs ERP but not action potential duration (APD70-90), which can be explained with the inhibition of sodium but not potassium channel current. ERP, APD, and the maximum rate of increase of the AP upstroke (Vmax) were measured in the canine-isolated coronary-perfused right atrial and in superfused ventricular tissue preparations. Whole-cell patch-clamp techniques were used to measure sodium channel current in HEK293 cells stably expressing SCN5A. AVE0118 (5-10 μM) prolonged ERP (P < 0.001) but not APD70 and decreased Vmax (by 15%, 10 μM, P < 0.05; n = 10 for each). Ventricular ERP, APD90, and Vmax were not changed significantly by 10 μM AVE0118 (all P = ns; n = 7). AVE0118 effectively suppressed acetylcholine-mediated persistent atrial fibrillation. AVE0118 (10 μM) reduced peak current amplitude of SCN5A-WT current by 36.5% ± 6.6% (P < 0.01; n = 7) and shifted half-inactivation voltage (V0.5) of the steady-state inactivation curve from -89.9 ± 0.5 to -96.0 ± 0.9 mV (P < 0.01; n = 7). Our data suggest that AVE0118-induced prolongation of atrial, but not ventricular ERP, is due largely to atrial-selective depression of sodium channel current, which likely contributes to the effectiveness of AVE0118 to suppress atrial fibrillation.Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology 02/2012; 59(6):539-46. · 2.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to compare the effect of electrical baroreflex stimulation (BRS) at an intensity used in hypertensive patients and renal denervation (RDN) on atrial electrophysiology. BRS and RDN reduce blood pressure and global sympathetic drive in patients with resistant hypertension. Whereas RDN decreases sympathetic renal afferent nerve activity, leading to decreased central sympathetic drive, BRS modulates autonomic balance by activation of the baroreflex, resulting in both reduced sympathetic drive and increased vagal activation. Increased vagal tone potentially shortens atrial refractoriness resulting in a stabilization of reentry circuits perpetuating atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS AND RESULTS: In normotensive anesthetized pigs (n = 12), we compared the acute effect of BRS and RDN on blood pressure, atrial effective refractory period (AERP), and inducibility of AF. Electrical BRS was titrated to result in comparable heart rate and blood pressure reduction compared to irreversible RDN. BRS resulted in a rapid and pronounced shortening of AERP (from 162 ± 8 milliseconds to 117 ± 16 milliseconds, P = 0.001) associated with increased AF-inducibility from 0% to 82%. This shortening in AERP was completely reversible after stopping BRS. After administration of atropine, AF-inducibility during BRS was attenuated. Ventricular repolarization was not modulated by BRS. In RDN, AF was not inducible; however, it did not prevent BRS-induced shortening of AERP. CONCLUSION: RDN and BRS resulting in comparable blood pressure and heart rate reductions differently influence atrial electrophysiology. Vagally mediated shortening of AERP, resulting in increased AF-inducibility, was observed with BRS but not with RDN.Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology 04/2013; · 3.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a growing clinical problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Development of safe and effective pharmacological treatments for AF is one of the greatest unmet medical needs facing our society. In spite of significant progress in non-pharmacological AF treatments (largely due to the use of catheter ablation techniques), anti-arrhythmic agents (AADs) remain first line therapy for rhythm control management of AF for most AF patients. When considering efficacy, safety and tolerability, currently available AADs for rhythm control of AF are less than optimal. Ion channel inhibition remains the principal strategy for termination of AF and prevention of its recurrence. Practical clinical experience indicates that multi-ion channel blockers are generally more optimal for rhythm control of AF compared to ion channel-selective blockers. Recent studies suggest that atrial-selective sodium channel block can lead to safe and effective suppression of AF and that concurrent inhibition of potassium ion channels may potentiate this effect. An important limitation of the ion channel block approach for AF treatment is that non-electrical factors (largely structural remodeling) may importantly determine the generation of AF, so that "upstream therapy", aimed at preventing or reversing structural remodeling, may be required for effective rhythm control management. This review focuses on novel pharmacological targets for the rhythm control management of AF.Pharmacology [?] Therapeutics 08/2011; 132(3):300-13. · 7.79 Impact Factor