Evidence for two types of bipolar depression using a dimensional approach
ABSTRACT Although there is a great heterogeneity of depressive states in bipolar patients, there is only one definition in international classifications for describing them. However, this variety seems particularly important to recognize because of the possible exacerbation of some of these bipolar depressive states by antidepressants. We aimed at assessing whether it is possible to distinguish different forms of bipolar depression using a dimensional approach.
We characterized 60 bipolar patients with a Major Depressive Episode (DSM-IV) using a new tool (MAThyS; Multidimensional Assessment of Thymic States), assessing five fundamental dimensions (emotional reactivity, cognitive speed, psychomotor function, motivation, and sensory perception) of mood states.
A cluster analysis using the items of the dimensional scale revealed two types of depressive state: group 1 (n = 38), which had a low score, is characterized by an inhibition in all dimensions, whereas group 2 (n = 22) is characterized by an overactivation. The emotional reactivity is the most relevant dimension for discriminating these two types of depression (group 1: hyporeactivity; group 2: hyperreactivity), whereas sadness is not.
Bipolar depressive states are not homogeneous. A dimensional approach based on emotional reactivity could be useful for discriminating the different forms of bipolar depression. Bipolar depressions may be classified as hyporeactive or hyperreactive. This classification might have therapeutic implications, because hyperreactive depression should belong to the broad spectrum of mixed states.
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ABSTRACT: Background Emotional dysregulation, characterized by high levels of both arousal and intensity of emotional responses, is a core feature of bipolar disorders (BD). In non-clinical populations, the 40-item Affect Intensity Measure (AIM) can be used to assess the different dimensions of emotional reactivity. Methods We analyzed the factor structure of the AIM in a sample of 310 euthymic patients with BD using Principal Component Analysis and examined associations between AIM sub-scale scores and demographic and illness characteristics. Results The French translation of the AIM demonstrated good reliability. A four-factor solution similar to that reported in non-clinical samples (Positive Affectivity, Unpeacefulness [lack of Serenity], Negative Reactivity, Negative Intensity), explained 47% of the total variance. Age and gender were associated with Unpeacefulness and Negative reactivity respectively. ‘Unpeacefulness’ was also positively associated with psychotic symptoms at onset (p=0.0006), but negatively associated with co-morbid substance misuse (p=0.008). Negative Intensity was positively associated with social phobia (p=0.0005). Limitations We cannot definitively exclude a lack of statistical power to classify all AIM items. Euthymia was carefully defined, but a degree of ‘contamination’ of the self-reported levels of emotion reactivity may occur because of subsyndromal BD symptoms. It was not feasible to control for the possible impact of on-going treatments. Conclusions The AIM scale appears to be a useful measure of emotional reactivity and intensity in a clinical sample of patients with BD, suggesting it can be used in addition to other markers of BD characteristics and sub-types.Journal of Affective Disorders 03/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.12.039 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We compared the time to achieve remission and the clinical characteristics of patients with bipolar depressive mixed state and those with bipolar depressive non-mixed state. The subjects (N=131) were inpatients diagnosed between 2006 and 2012 with bipolar I or II disorder, depression and were classified into the following three groups: "pure depressive state" (PD, n=70), "sub-threshold mixed state" (SMX, n=38), and "depressive mixed state" (DMX, n=23). Diagnosis of a DMX was in accordance with Benazzi's definition: three or more manic symptoms in a depressive episode. The subjects' charts were retrospectively reviewed to ascertain the time to achieve remission from the index episode and to identify other factors, such as demographic and clinical characteristics, specific manic symptoms, and pharmacological treatment, that may have contributed to remission. The time to achieve remission was significantly longer in the DMX (p=0.022) and SMX (p=0.035) groups than in the PD group. Adjustment for covariates using a Cox proportional hazards model did not change these results. Clinically, subjects with a DMX were more likely to have manic symptoms in the index episode, especially inflated self-esteem and psychomotor agitation than those in the PD. We investigated only inpatients and therefore could not comment on outpatients. These findings showed that sub-syndromal manic symptoms in bipolar depression had different clinical characteristics and a more severe illness course, including a longer time to achieve remission, than did a pure depressive state.Journal of Affective Disorders 10/2013; 152. DOI:10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.035 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective. To investigate the effects of bright light treatment for secondary outcome measures and to explore and validate empirically derived subgroups and treatment effects in subgroups. Methods. A descriptive design. A sample of forty-nine persons (mean age of 45.8) with clinically assessed seasonal affective disorder (SAD) or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) participated in a two-group clinical trial evaluating the effects of treatment with bright light therapy. A person-oriented cluster analysis was applied to study treatment effects in subgroups. Results. For the merged group, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (fatigue questionnaire), and health-related quality of life (SF-36) were improved at posttreatment, and results were maintained at the one-month followup. Three distinct subgroups had a high level of fatigue in common, while the level of excessive daytime sleepiness and depressed mood differed between the subgroups. Over time, all subgroups improved following ten days treatment in a light room. Conclusion. Fatigue, excessive daytime sleepiness, and health-related quality of life improve in a similar way as depressed mood following treatment with bright light. The treatment was effective irrespective of the severity of the disorder, that is, for persons with SAD and subsyndromal SAD.Depression research and treatment 06/2011; 2011(2090-1321):543906. DOI:10.1155/2011/543906