Epigenetic properties of the diarrhetic marine toxin okadaic acid: inhibition of the gap junctional intercellular communication in a human intestine epithelial cell line.
ABSTRACT Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by several types of dinoflagellates (marine plankton) and has been implicated as the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish syndrome. Previous studies have shown that okadaic acid is a tumor promoter and a specific potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases and protein synthesis. These effects in turn affect intracellular processes such as metabolism, contractility, gene transcription, and the maintenance of cytoskeletal structure. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a means of maintaining cellular homeostasis in organs, the disruption of which favors tumor cell growth. The GJIC involves the transfer of small water-soluble molecules through intercellular channels (gap junctions), composed of proteins called connexins. OA disrupts cellular homeostasis in Caco-2 cells through several mechanisms including protein synthesis inhibition, apoptosis, and clastogenic effects. The aim of this study was then to evaluate the expression of the connexin 43 (Cx 43) mRNA in relation with the cytotoxicity induced by OA (3.75-60 ng/ml) in a human colonic epithelial cell line in culture (Caco-2 cells). OA produced a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC in Caco-2 cells, along with a parallel decrease in the expression of Cx 43 as shown by immunohistochemistry using anti-Cx 43 antibody. Since Cx 43 is implicated in the suppression of tumors and OA is a tumor promoter, the inhibition of GJIC may play an important role in its carcinogenesis. These data are discussed in relation to the toxicity of OA, total RNA synthesis, and possible specificity of Cx 43 inhibition in the GJIC.
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ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid (OA) is one of the most common and highly distributed marine toxins. It can be accumulated in several molluscs and other marine organisms and cause acute gastrointestinal symptoms after oral consumption by humans, called diarrheic shellfish poisoning. However other toxic effects beyond these gastrointestinal symptoms were also reported. Thus, OA was found to induce important chromosomal abnormalities and other genetic injuries that can lead to severe pathologies, including cancer. Furthermore, the relationship between OA and carcinogenic processes has been previously demonstrated in in vivo studies with rodents, and also suggested in human epidemiological studies. In this context, further research is required to better understand the underlying mechanisms of OA-related tumourigenesis. In a previous study, we identified 247 genes differentially expressed in SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells exposed to 100nM OA at different times (3, 24 and 48h) by means of suppression subtractive hybridization. These genes were involved in relevant cell functions such as signal transduction, cell cycle, metabolism, and transcription and translation processes. However, due to the high potential percentage of false positives that may be obtained by this approach, results from SSH are recommended to be analyzed by an independent method. In the present study, we selected ten genes related to cancer initiation or progression, directly or indirectly, for further quantitative PCR analysis (ANAPC13, PTTG1, CALM2, CLU, HN1, MALAT1, MAPRE2, MLLT11, SGA-81M and TAX1BP1). Results obtained showed important alterations in the expression patterns of all the genes evaluated at one or more treatment times, providing, for the first time, a possible explanation at the molecular level of the potential relationship between the consumption of OA-contaminated shellfish and the incidence of different cancers in humans. Nevertheless, given the complexity of this process, more exhaustive studies are required before drawing any final conclusion.Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 04/2013; · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Poly(HexaMethylene Biguanide) hydrochloride (PHMB) CAS No. [32289-58-0] is a particularly effective member of the biguanides antiseptic chemical group, and has been in use since the early fifties in numerous applications. It has been proposed that PHMB be classified as a category 3 carcinogen although PHMB is not genotoxic. It has been hypothesized that PHMB may have epigenetic properties effects, including non-genotoxic modifications of DNA bases, DNA methylation and mitogenic cytokine production. These properties have been assessed in vitro using 3 cell types: Caco-2 cells (from a human colon adenocarcinoma) with a non-functional p53 gene. (∆p53: mut p53), N2-A (Neuro-2A cells, mouse neural cells), the brain being a possible target organ in rodents and HepG2 cells (human hepatocellular carcinoma) with functional p53 gene. From the concentration 1 µg/mL up to 20 µg/mL of PHMB, no effect was observed, either growth stimulation or inhibition. Viability testing using neutral red led to an IC 50 of 20-25 µg/mL after treatment with PHMB for 3 h, whereas the MTT test led to IC50 values of 80 µg/mL, 160 µg/mL and 160 µg/mL respectively for HepG2 cells, Neuro-2A cells and Caco-2 cells. PHMB does not induce significant oxidative stress (production of MDA or lipoperoxidation, nor does it induce hydroxylation of DNA (8-OH-dG) and/or its hypermethylation (m5dC), the latter being strongly implicated in DNA replication and regulation and cell division. PHMB does not induce significant production of mitogenic cytokines such as TNF-α (tumor necrosis factor), interleukins (IL-1 alpha), and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) which can cause either apoptosis or stimulate the growth of transformed cells or tumors. Instead, from concentrations of 20 to 100 µg/mL, PHMB kills cells of all types in less than 3 h. The expression of genes involved in the mechanisms of cell death induced by PHMB, including p53, the pro apoptotic gene bax and others, the anti-apoptotic bcl-2 and caspase-3 has been evaluated by RT-PCR. Finally, the status of GAP-junctions (GJIC) in the presence of PHMB has been determined and appeared to not be significantly affected. Taken together the data show that in vitro PHMB does not exhibit clear and remarkable epigenetic properties except a slight increase of some cytokines and transcription factor at higher concentrations at which cell lysis occurs rapidly.International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 01/2014; 11(8):8069-8092. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Previous studies revealed that gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) between uterine stromal cells plays critical roles in modulating decidualization, neovasularization and embryo implantation. Connexin (Cx) proteins are the major component of gap junctions and Cx43 is the most widely expressed connexin in endometrium. Phosphorylation of Cx43 was found to impair gap junction communication in this tissue. Using primary human endometrial stromal cells (ESC) and a stable high telomerase-expressing ESC transfectant (T-HESC), we found that retinoic acid (RA) altered the phosphorylation status of Cx43 protein such that there was a decrease in the phosphorylated (P1 and P2) species accompanied by an increase in the non-phosphorylated (P0) form. This process is dependent on protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity since selective PP2A inhibitors prevented the ability of RA to dephosphorylate Cx43. Although RA had no effect on total PP2A expression or activity, it significantly increased the intracellular association of Cx43 and PP2A. Inhibition of transcription and protein synthesis by actinomycin D and cycloheximide, respectively, had no effect on the RA-induced changes in the Cx43 phosphorylation pattern. Furthermore, BMS493, a potent antagonist of the classical RA-mediated transcriptional pathway, did not inhibit RA-induced Cx43 dephosphorylation. Our data indicate that RA stimulates physical association of PP2A with Cx43, resulting in the dephosphorylation of Cx43 and, as a consequence, up-regulation of GJIC in endometrial stromal cells. This process is independent of new mRNA and protein synthesis and suggests a novel mechanism by which aberrant retinoid metabolism can explain certain reproductive disorders manifested by dysfunctional endometrial cell GJIC. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Journal of Cellular Physiology 10/2012; · 4.22 Impact Factor