Epigenetic properties of the diarrhetic marine toxin okadaic acid: inhibition of the gap junctional intercellular communication in a human intestine epithelial cell line.
ABSTRACT Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by several types of dinoflagellates (marine plankton) and has been implicated as the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish syndrome. Previous studies have shown that okadaic acid is a tumor promoter and a specific potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases and protein synthesis. These effects in turn affect intracellular processes such as metabolism, contractility, gene transcription, and the maintenance of cytoskeletal structure. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a means of maintaining cellular homeostasis in organs, the disruption of which favors tumor cell growth. The GJIC involves the transfer of small water-soluble molecules through intercellular channels (gap junctions), composed of proteins called connexins. OA disrupts cellular homeostasis in Caco-2 cells through several mechanisms including protein synthesis inhibition, apoptosis, and clastogenic effects. The aim of this study was then to evaluate the expression of the connexin 43 (Cx 43) mRNA in relation with the cytotoxicity induced by OA (3.75-60 ng/ml) in a human colonic epithelial cell line in culture (Caco-2 cells). OA produced a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC in Caco-2 cells, along with a parallel decrease in the expression of Cx 43 as shown by immunohistochemistry using anti-Cx 43 antibody. Since Cx 43 is implicated in the suppression of tumors and OA is a tumor promoter, the inhibition of GJIC may play an important role in its carcinogenesis. These data are discussed in relation to the toxicity of OA, total RNA synthesis, and possible specificity of Cx 43 inhibition in the GJIC.
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ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid parallely increased carnitine [corrected] palmitoyltransferase I activity and the rate of palmitate oxidation in isolated rat hepatocytes. Nevertheless, okadaic acid had no significant effect on the rate of octanoate oxidation. Maximal effects of okadaic acid were similar and non-additive to those of dibutyryl-cAMP, forskolin and glucagon. Results indicate that carnitine palmitoyltransferase I activity may be controlled by a mechanism of phosphorylation/dephosphorylation.FEBS Letters 11/1991; 291(1):105-8. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid, a polyether fatty acid associated with diarrhetic seafood poisoning, is capable of inhibiting protein phosphatases 1 and 2A which are considered among the major protein phosphatases in the cytosol of mammalian cells. One of the substrates for these phosphatases has been reported to be the cytoskeleton. In this paper, we focused on the effects of okadaic acid in intestinal cells, the more physiological target for this toxin. By fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, we evidenced a dose- and time-dependent effect on F-actin which preceded any detectable change of tubulin and vimentin network. By a flow cytometric approach, we observed that plasma membrane permeability and transmembrane potential, two indicators of early cell damage or activation, respectively, remained unaffected in intoxicated cells. The present data strongly support the theory that actin is one of the main cytosolic targets for the phosphatases inhibited by okadaic acid in intestinal cells.Toxicon 09/1996; 34(8):937-45. · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vascular endothelium response to ischemic depletion of ATP was studied in vitro. Endothelial cells (EC) cultured from human aorta or umbilical vein were incubated in a glucose-free medium containing CCCP or rotenone. Such blockade of energy metabolism caused a drop in ATP, destruction of actin filaments, morphological changes, and eventually disintegration of EC monolayer within 2-2.5 h. While ATP fell and F-actin collapsed, the 27-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp27) lost basal phosphorylation and became Triton X-100-insoluble forming granules inside the cell nuclei. Protein phosphatase (PP) inhibitors (okadaic acid, cantharidin, sodium orthovanadate) did not delay the ATP decrease in energy-deprived EC but arrested both the alterations in the Hsp27 status and the changes for the worse in F-actin and cell morphology. Similarly, the Hsp27 dephosphorylation/insolubilization/granulation and the cytoskeletal and morphological disturbances resulting from lack of ATP were suppressed in heat-preconditioned (thermotolerant) cultures, this effect being sensitive to quercetin, a blocker of Hsp induction. The longer preservation of the cytosolic pool of phosphorylated Hsp27 during ATP depletion in the PP inhibitor-treated or thermotolerant EC correlated with the acquired resistance of F-actin and morphology. These data suggest that PP inhibitors as well as heat-inducible Hsp(s) can protect ischemia-stressed cells by preventing the ATP loss-provoked protein dephosphorylation and breakdown of the actin cytoskeleton.FEBS Letters 09/1998; 433(3):294-300. · 3.58 Impact Factor