Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by several types of dinoflagellates (marine plankton) and has been implicated as the causative agent of diarrhetic shellfish syndrome. Previous studies have shown that okadaic acid is a tumor promoter and a specific potent inhibitor of protein phosphatases and protein synthesis. These effects in turn affect intracellular processes such as metabolism, contractility, gene transcription, and the maintenance of cytoskeletal structure. Gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) is a means of maintaining cellular homeostasis in organs, the disruption of which favors tumor cell growth. The GJIC involves the transfer of small water-soluble molecules through intercellular channels (gap junctions), composed of proteins called connexins. OA disrupts cellular homeostasis in Caco-2 cells through several mechanisms including protein synthesis inhibition, apoptosis, and clastogenic effects. The aim of this study was then to evaluate the expression of the connexin 43 (Cx 43) mRNA in relation with the cytotoxicity induced by OA (3.75-60 ng/ml) in a human colonic epithelial cell line in culture (Caco-2 cells). OA produced a dose-dependent inhibition of GJIC in Caco-2 cells, along with a parallel decrease in the expression of Cx 43 as shown by immunohistochemistry using anti-Cx 43 antibody. Since Cx 43 is implicated in the suppression of tumors and OA is a tumor promoter, the inhibition of GJIC may play an important role in its carcinogenesis. These data are discussed in relation to the toxicity of OA, total RNA synthesis, and possible specificity of Cx 43 inhibition in the GJIC.
"The predominant OA effects on metabolic processes may be explained by its activity as a PP inhibitor since various enzymes involved in those pathways, such as glycogen synthase or glycogen phosphorylase , are modulated by phosphorylation or dephosphorylation on serine and/or threonine residues (Denton 1986). Specifically, PP1 and PP2A are closely involved in glucose and glycogen metabolism (Hubbard and Cohen 1989; Traoré et al. 2003; Ugi et al. 2004). Further, the existence of OA binding to proteins other than phosphatases, previously demonstrated in several marine organisms (Schröder et al. 2006; Sugiyama et al. 2007), cannot be ruled out in humans. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid (OA) is a widely distributed marine toxin produced by several phytoplanktonic species and responsible for diarrheic shellfish poisoning in humans. At the molecular level OA is a specific inhibitor of several types of serine/threonine protein phosphatases. Due to this enzymic inhibition, OA was reported to induce numerous alterations in relevant cellular physiological processes, including several metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, lipolysis and glycolysis, heme metabolism, and glycogen and protein synthesis. In order to further understand the underlying mechanisms involved in OA-induced effects on cellular metabolism, the expression levels of six genes related to different catabolic and anabolic metabolism-related processes were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Specifically, the expression patterns of GAPDH, TOMM5, SLC25A4, COII, QARS, and RGS5 genes were determined in SHSY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to OA for 3, 24, or 48 h. All these genes showed alterations in their expression levels after at least one of the OA treatments tested. These alterations provide a basis to understand the mechanisms underlying the previously described OA-induced effects on different metabolic processes, mainly regarding glucose and mitochondrial metabolism. However, other OA-induced affected genes can not be ruled out, and further studies are required to more comprehensively characterize in the mechanisms of OA-induced interaction on cell metabolism.
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 07/2012; 75(13-15):844-56. DOI:10.1080/15287394.2012.690703 · 2.35 Impact Factor
"On the basis on these and other previous studies, OA represents other potential threats to human health besides DSP, even at concentrations within the nanomolar range. It is well-known that OA can inhibit specifically the serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A) ; the number of physiological processes in which those phosphatases are involved is immense, including regulation of glycogen metabolism and coordination of the cell cycle and gene expression . So this role of phosphatase inhibition by OA could explain most of the cell effects induced by this toxin . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid (OA), a toxin produced by several dinoflagellate species is responsible for frequent food poisonings associated to shellfish consumption. Although several studies have documented the OA effects on different processes such as cell transformation, apoptosis, DNA repair or embryogenesis, the molecular mechanistic basis for these and other effects is not completely understood and the number of controversial data on OA is increasing in the literature.
In this study, we used suppression subtractive hybridization in SHSY5Y cells to identify genes that are differentially expressed after OA exposure for different times (3, 24 and 48 h). A total of 247 subtracted clones which shared high homology with known genes were isolated. Among these, 5 specific genes associated with cytoskeleton and neurotransmission processes (NEFM, TUBB, SEPT7, SYT4 and NPY) were selected to confirm their expression levels by real-time PCR. Significant down-regulation of these genes was obtained at the short term (3 and 24 h OA exposure), excepting for NEFM, but their expression was similar to the controls at 48 h.
From all the obtained genes, 114 genes were up-regulated and 133 were down-regulated. Based on the NCBI GenBank and Gene Ontology databases, most of these genes are involved in relevant cell functions such as metabolism, transport, translation, signal transduction and cell cycle. After quantitative PCR analysis, the observed underexpression of the selected genes could underlie the previously reported OA-induced cytoskeleton disruption, neurotransmission alterations and in vivo neurotoxic effects. The basal expression levels obtained at 48 h suggested that surviving cells were able to recover from OA-caused gene expression alterations.
"OA and its derivates (dinophysistoxins DTX1 to DTX5) are specific inhibitors of serine/threonine protein phosphatases 1 (PP1) and 2A (PP2A)  . These inhibitions in turn affect intracellular processes such as metabolism, contractility, gene transcription, and the maintenance of cytoskeletal structure ; in fact inhibition of "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Okadaic acid (OA) is a phycotoxin produced by several types of dinoflagellates causing diarrheic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans. Symptoms induced by DSP toxins are mainly gastrointestinal, but the intoxication does not appear to be fatal. Despite this, this toxin presents a potential threat to human health even at concentrations too low to induce acute toxicity, since previous animal studies have shown that OA has very potent tumour promoting activity. However, its concrete action mechanism has not been described yet and the results reported with regard to OA cytotoxicity and genotoxicity are often contradictory. In the present study, the genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of OA on three different types of human cells (peripheral blood leukocytes, HepG2 hepatoma cells, and SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells) were evaluated. Cells were treated with a range of OA concentrations in the presence and absence of S9 fraction, and MTT test and Comet assay were performed in order to evaluate cytotoxicity and genotoxicity, respectively. The possible effects of OA on DNA repair were also studied by means of the DNA repair competence assay, using bleomycin as DNA damage inductor. Treatment with OA in absence of S9 fraction induced not statistically significant decrease in cell viability and significant increase in DNA damage in all cell types at the highest concentrations investigated. However, only SHSY5Y cells showed OA induced genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in presence of S9 fraction. Furthermore, we found that OA can induce modulations in DNA repair processes when exposure was performed prior to BLM treatment, in co-exposure, or during the subsequent DNA repair process.
Mutation Research/Fundamental and Molecular Mechanisms of Mutagenesis 07/2010; 689(1-2):74-9. DOI:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2010.05.004 · 3.68 Impact Factor
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