GRB-7 facilitates HER-2/Neu-mediated signal transduction and tumor formation

Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland VA Medical Center, Portland, OR 97239, USA.
Carcinogenesis (Impact Factor: 5.27). 04/2008; 29(3):473-9. DOI: 10.1093/carcin/bgm221
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Growth factor receptor-bound protein-7 (GRB-7), an adaptor molecule, can interact with multiple signal transduction molecules. GRB-7 is amplified concurrently with HER-2/Neu in most, if not all, of breast cancer with chromosome 17q11-21 amplification. GRB-7 gene amplification is associated with RNA over-expression. We show GRB-7 protein is over-expressed by immunoblotting in breast cancer cell lines and primary breast tumors with HER-2/Neu protein over-expression. Over-expression of GRB-7 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that over-express HER-2/Neu leads to activation of tyrosine phosphorylation of HER-2/Neu. Knockdown of GRB-7 expression in SKBR-3 breast cancer cells with naturally occurring HER-2/Neu gene amplification decreases tyrosine phosphorylation of HER-2/Neu. Activation of HER-2/Neu phosphorylation is associated with increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of phosphoinositide-specific lipase C-gamma-1 (PLC-gamma-1) and recruitment of PLC-gamma-1 to HER-2/Neu protein molecule. Activation of downstream protein kinase C (PKC) pathway is evidenced by increase in the phosphorylation of a common PKC substrate-myristoylated alanine-rich protein kinase C substrate (MARCKS). In addition, over-expression of GRB-7 in MCF-7 breast cancer cells that over-express HER-2/Neu leads to activation of AKT phosphorylation. Knockdown of GRB-7 expression in MB-453 and SKBR-3 breast cancer cells results in decrease in AKT phosphorylation. GRB-7 over-expression therefore facilitates activation of phosphorylation of HER-2/Neu and AKT in breast cancer cells with HER-2/Neu over-expression. GRB-7 over-expression in MCF-7 cells over-expressing HER-2/Neu leads to morphologic change of cells and promotes tumor xenograft growth in nude mice. GRB-7 over-expression therefore plays pivotal roles in activating signal transduction and promoting tumor growth in breast cancer cells with chromosome 17q11-21 amplification.

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Available from: Shiuh-Wen Luoh, Jul 29, 2015
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    • "In addition to HER-2, there are a number of other chromosome 17q11-12 genes, including closely neighboring GRB7, which may be amplified and over-expressed concurrently with HER-2 (Luoh 2002; Kao & Pollack 2006; Kauraniemi & Kallioniemi 2006; Bai & Luoh 2008; Stein et al. 1994; Glynn et al. 2010). The GRB7 gene codes for a multi-domain signal transduction molecule, and is known to play important roles in tumor growth and migration (Shen & Guan 2004). "
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    ABSTRACT: Testing for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2) in breast cancer is performed by either immunohistochemistry (IHC) or in situ hybridization (ISH). The growth factor receptor-bound protein-7 (GRB7) gene is in close proximity to HER-2 on chromosome 17q11-12 and codes a signal transduction molecule shown to be an independent adverse marker in breast cancer. HER-2 and GRB7 protein expression from 613 frozen breast tumors was determined by Western analysis. HER-2 protein results were confirmed with IHC. Commercial HER-2 FISH was performed on a subset of tumors with multi-probe FISH used to assess the extent of HER-2 gene amplification. mRNA expression was determined by Multi-plex RT-PCR. Seven tumors with GRB7 protein over-expression scored HER-2 FISH amplified but had no HER-2 protein over-expression. Four of the 7 tumors showed elevated GRB7 but not HER-2 mRNA over-expression. The breast cancer cell line HCC3153 did not over-express HER-2 protein but showed HER-2 FISH amplification of a limited segment around the HER-2 gene. Ten breast cancer tumors from the TCGA database had gene copy number increases around HER-2 without HER-2 mRNA or protein over-expression. A subset of human breast cancers that test positive with FISH for HER-2 gene amplification do not over-express HER-2 protein. One mechanism for this discordance is the incomplete amplification of the smallest HER-2 region of chromosome 17q11-12, which includes GRB7. HER-2 gene amplification without protein over-expression is clinically significant because patients with such tumors are unlikely to benefit from HER-2 targeted therapy.
    SpringerPlus 08/2013; 2:386. DOI:10.1186/2193-1801-2-386
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    • "One of the best studied of these core genes is GRB7. Co-expression of Grb7 and HER2 facilitates HER2 signal transduction and functions synergistically for tumour formation (Stein et al, 1994; Bai and Luoh, 2008). Tumours co-expressing high levels of Grb7 and HER2 have a worse outcome than those with only higher levels of HER2 (Nadler et al, 2010), in line with the clinical data presented here. "
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    ABSTRACT: C35 is a 12 kDa membrane-anchored protein endogenously over-expressed in many invasive breast cancers. C35 (C17orf37) is located on the HER2 amplicon, between HER2 and GRB7. The function of over-expressed C35 in invasive breast cancer is unknown. Tissue microarrays containing 122 primary human breast cancer specimens were used to examine the association of C35 with HER2 expression. Cell lines over-expressing C35 were generated and tested for evidence of cell transformation in vitro. In primary breast cancers high levels of C35 mRNA expression were associated with HER2 gene amplification. High levels of C35 protein expression were associated with hallmarks of transformation, such as, colony growth in soft agar, invasion into collagen matrix and formation of large acinar structures in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures. The transformed phenotype was also associated with characteristics of epithelial to mesenchymal transition, such as adoption of spindle cell morphology and down-regulation of epithelial markers, such as E-cadherin and keratin-8. Furthermore, C35-induced transformation in 3D cell cultures was dependent on Syk kinase, a downstream mediator of signalling from the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif, which is present in C35. C35 functions as an oncogene in breast cancer cell lines. Drug targeting of C35 or Syk kinase might be helpful in treating a subset of patients with HER2-amplified breast cancers.
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