Meta-analysis of 94,492 patients with hypertension treated with beta Blockers to determine the risk of new-onset diabetes Mellitus
ABSTRACT Beta blockers used for the treatment of hypertension may be associated with increased risk for new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM). A search of Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE was conducted for randomized controlled trials of patients taking beta blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension with data on new-onset DM and follow-up for > or =1 year. Twelve studies evaluating 94,492 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Beta-blocker therapy resulted in a 22% increased risk for new-onset DM (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.33) compared with nondiuretic antihypertensive agents. A higher baseline fasting glucose level (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.004) and greater systolic (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08, p = 0.001) and diastolic (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10, p = 0.011) blood pressure differences between the 2 treatment modalities were significant univariate predictors of new-onset DM. Multivariate meta-regression analysis showed that a higher baseline body mass index (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33, p = 0.034) was a significant predictor of new-onset DM. The risk for DM was greater with atenolol, in the elderly, and in studies in which beta blockers were less efficacious antihypertensive agents and increased exponentially with increased duration on beta blockers. For the secondary end points, beta blockers resulted in a 15% increased risk for stroke, with no benefit for the end point of death or myocardial infarction. In conclusion, beta blockers are associated with an increased risk for new-onset DM, with no benefit for the end point of death or myocardial infarction and with a 15% increased risk for stroke compared with other agents. This risk was greater in patients with higher baseline body mass indexes and higher baseline fasting glucose levels and in studies in which beta blockers were less efficacious antihypertensive agents compared with other treatments.
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ABSTRACT: We review the most recent data regarding the association of incident diabetes and statin use, examine potential mechanisms to explain this association, and compare the potential risk of diabetes with the known cardiovascular benefits derived from statin use. We discuss new and interesting findings, as well as significant trends and developments. The risk of statin-induced dysglycemia and diabetes appears to be dose-dependent, but generally small in magnitude and confined to an unmasking of a strong predisposition to diabetes or accelerated diagnosis in individuals with diabetes risk factors. We focus on the concept of net benefit and find that although risk of diabetes could outweigh cardiovascular benefits in select individuals at low cardiovascular risk, the vast majority of people being managed for cardiovascular risk are most likely to derive net benefit. The need to weigh risks and benefits highlights the importance of shared decision-making in clinician-patient risk discussions.Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 04/2015; 9(4). DOI:10.1007/s12170-015-0444-7
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ABSTRACT: There is an increasing amount of data indicating that primary hypertension (PH) is not only a hemodynamic phenomenon but also a complex syndrome involving abnormal fat tissue distribution, over-activity of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), metabolic abnormalities, and activation of the immune system. In children, PH usually presents with a typical phenotype of disturbed body composition, accelerated biological maturity, and subtle immunological and metabolic abnormalities. This stage of the disease is potentially reversible. However, long-lasting over-activity of the SNS and immuno-metabolic alterations usually lead to an irreversible stage of cardiovascular disease. We describe an intermediate phenotype of children with PH, showing that PH is associated with accelerated development, i.e., early premature aging of the immune, metabolic, and vascular systems. The associations and determinants of hypertensive organ damage, the principles of treatment, and the possibility of rejuvenation of the cardiovascular system are discussed.