A meta-analysis of 94,492 patients with hypertension treated with beta blockers to determine the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus.
ABSTRACT Beta blockers used for the treatment of hypertension may be associated with increased risk for new-onset diabetes mellitus (DM). A search of Medline, PubMed, and EMBASE was conducted for randomized controlled trials of patients taking beta blockers as first-line therapy for hypertension with data on new-onset DM and follow-up for > or =1 year. Twelve studies evaluating 94,492 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Beta-blocker therapy resulted in a 22% increased risk for new-onset DM (relative risk 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12 to 1.33) compared with nondiuretic antihypertensive agents. A higher baseline fasting glucose level (odds ratio [OR] 1.01, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.02, p = 0.004) and greater systolic (OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.08, p = 0.001) and diastolic (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10, p = 0.011) blood pressure differences between the 2 treatment modalities were significant univariate predictors of new-onset DM. Multivariate meta-regression analysis showed that a higher baseline body mass index (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33, p = 0.034) was a significant predictor of new-onset DM. The risk for DM was greater with atenolol, in the elderly, and in studies in which beta blockers were less efficacious antihypertensive agents and increased exponentially with increased duration on beta blockers. For the secondary end points, beta blockers resulted in a 15% increased risk for stroke, with no benefit for the end point of death or myocardial infarction. In conclusion, beta blockers are associated with an increased risk for new-onset DM, with no benefit for the end point of death or myocardial infarction and with a 15% increased risk for stroke compared with other agents. This risk was greater in patients with higher baseline body mass indexes and higher baseline fasting glucose levels and in studies in which beta blockers were less efficacious antihypertensive agents compared with other treatments.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The co-existence of hypertension and diabetes mellitus is very common. Hypertension remarkably increases the cardiovascular risk in diabetic patients. Lowering blood pressure (BP) in these patients is particularly beneficial. Areas covered: This paper will discuss what the target BP is for diabetic patients and how that target can be reached. Expert opinion: Previous guidelines recommended lowering BP < 130/80 mmHg in diabetic patients. However, recent studies did not support this target and accordingly most recent guidelines recommend lowering BP to < 140/90 mmHg in diabetic patients. Non-pharmacological approaches are recommended in all patients. If BP levels are above the target despite non-pharmacological treatment, drug therapy should be initiated. Despite the lack of clear evidence, blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) represent the cornerstone of the antihypertensive arsenal; however, in most patients combination therapy is required. Combination of RAAS blocker and a calcium antagonist is the preferred one. In many patients three or four drugs are needed. Treatment should be individualized according to concomitant risk factors and diseases and according hemodynamic and laboratory parameters as well as age. In order to maximally reduce cardiorenal risk, lipid and glycemic control should also be achieved.Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy 08/2014; · 2.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertension plays a major role in the development and progression of micro- and macrovascular disease. Moreover, increased blood pressure often coexists with additional cardiovascular risk factors such as insulin resistance. As a result the need for a comprehensive management of hypertensive patients is critical. However, the various antihypertensive drug categories have different effects on glucose metabolism. Indeed, angiotensin receptor blockers as well as angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors have been associated with beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis. Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) have an overall neutral effect on glucose metabolism. However, some members of the CCBs class such as azelnidipine and manidipine have been shown to have advantageous effects on glucose homeostasis. On the other hand, diuretics and β-blockers have an overall disadvantageous effect on glucose metabolism. Of note, carvedilol as well as nebivolol seem to differentiate themselves from the rest of the β-blockers class, being more attractive options regarding their effect on glucose homeostasis. The adverse effects of some blood pressure lowering drugs on glucose metabolism may, to an extent, compromise their cardiovascular protective role. As a result the effects on glucose homeostasis of the various blood pressure lowering drugs should be taken into account when selecting an antihypertensive treatment, especially in patients which are at high risk for developing diabetes.World Journal of Cardiology (WJC) 07/2014; 6(7):517-30. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Discharge β-blocker prescription after myocardial infarction (MI) is recommended for all eligible patients. Numerous β-blocker choices are presently available with variable glycometabolic effects, which could be an important consideration in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Whether patients with DM preferentially receive β-blockers with favorable metabolic effects after MI and if this choice is associated with better glycemic control postdischarge is unknown.American Heart Journal 09/2014; 168(3):273-279.e1. · 4.56 Impact Factor