A phase I study of visilizumab a humanized anti-CD3, monoclonal antibody, in severe steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis
ABSTRACT To evaluate the safety and biological activity of visilizumab (a humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody) and to determine a maximum tolerated dose in patients with severe ulcerative colitis that had not responded to 5 days of treatment with intravenous corticosteroids.
In this open-label phase 1 study, 32 subjects received visilizumab at a dose of 10 or 15 microg/kg, administered intravenously on 2 consecutive days. Clinical response was defined as a Modified Truelove and Witts Severity Index <10 with a minimum decrease of 3 points; remission was <4 points. Endoscopic remission was a Mayo endoscopic subscore of 0 or 1.
Eight patients received 15 microg/kg visilizumab. Because of dose-limiting toxicities (T-cell recovery >30 days in 2 of 8 patients), the dose was reduced to 10 microg/kg in 24 patients. On day 30, 84% of patients demonstrated a clinical response, 41% achieved clinical remission, and 44% achieved endoscopic remission. Forty-five percent of patients did not require salvage therapies or colectomy during the first year postdose. Mild to moderate symptoms of cytokine release occurred in 100% and 83% of patients in the 15- and 10-microg/kg dose groups, respectively. All patients exhibited a rapid decrease in circulating CD4(+) T-cell counts, which returned to baseline values by day 30 in 26 of 30 evaluable patients (86%). There were no serious infections.
Visilizumab had an acceptable safety profile at the 10-microg/kg dose level and may be clinically beneficial in patients with severe intravenous corticosteroid-refractory ulcerative colitis.
- SourceAvailable from: Nathalie CoolsImmunosuppression - Role in Health and Diseases, 02/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0152-9
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ABSTRACT: Although the remarkable efficacy of biological therapy has resulted in significant success in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) management, susceptibility to infections remains a concern. The biological agents include the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibitors, for instance infliximab, and other immunomodulating agents, such as natalizumab. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), a rare but mostly fatal opportunistic brain infection caused by reactivation of the human polyomavirus JC virus (JCV), has been found in two patients with multiple sclerosis and one patient with Crohn's disease (CD), linked to treatment with natalizumab. After these cases of PML, the commercial and investigational use of natalizumab was suspended in February 2005 but was subsequently resumed for multiple sclerosis and for CD, only through a special restricted distribution program. This review, starting from an extensive literature search by the PubMed database, resumes the clinical aspects and pathophysiology of CD and focuses on the biologics in current use in CD (infliximab, adalimumab, and natalizumab), in order to provide a reference and gateway to prevention, recognition, and management of JCV, in the early years of biological agents therapy. It also proposed to provide an overview on the hypothetical mechanism of reactivation of JC virus related to the use of these drugs.Journal of Cellular Physiology 08/2010; 224(2):316-326. · 3.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a disease of unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the mucosa and occasionally the submucosa of the colon. Conventional drug therapy for UC involves use of aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, azathioprine/6-mercaptopurine, cyclosporine and anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. Alternative therapies include probiotics, nicotine and fish oil. Drugs like tacrolimus, rosiglitazone and Trichuris suis ova are being evaluated for use in UC patients. With the new biologic agents, new treatment options for UC continue to evolve. In this article we will discuss the conventional drugs, the alternative therapies and the management strategies according to the severity and extent of UC.Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology 03/2009; 2(2):99-108. DOI:10.1177/1756283X09102329