Hydration in children.
ABSTRACT Water supply is a basic public problem. In modern science, three periods with different approaches to define recommended water intake in adults can be distinguished. Pediatricians agree that hydration in children may be optimal only in breastfed infants. More data are required on the health effects of different hydration states and varying water intakes in particular age and gender groups to define optimal ranges of water intake. The fetus grows in an exceptionally well-hydrated environment. Water metabolism shows several peculiarities in preterm and term infants. Infant diarrhea remains a major topic of basic and clinical research. Water intoxication in infants, toddlers, and children is rare and can only be found in exceptional circumstances. Hydration status characterized by hyponatremia may play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions in toddlers. There is increasing indirect evidence that spontaneous drinking behavior of a population may be fixed and anchored in the age range of toddlers. Sex differences in hydration status are common, but not obligatory. What causes theses differences? What is behind the various circadian rhythms of urine osmolality in children? At what age and in what quantities can alcohol and caffeine consumption be tolerated? How can individual susceptibility be defined? Reflecting on the modern epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, a public consensus concerning use and misuse of sweetened drinks seems mandatory. Dietary reference intakes of water refer to 24-hour intake. In nutritional counselling, food and meal-based dietary advice is primarily given. Young parents are confronted with a flood of advice of varying quality. Recommendations on fluid consumption should be collated and revised.
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: Aquaporin-1 (AQP1) is the predominant water channel in the heart, linked to cardiovascular homeostasis. Our aim was to study cardiovascular AQP1 distribution and protein levels during osmotic stress and subsequent hydration during postnatal growth. METHODS: Rats aged 25 and 50 days were divided in: 3d-WR: water restriction 3 days; 3d-WAL: water ad libitum 3 days; 6d-WR+ORS: water restriction 3 days + oral rehydration solution (ORS) 3 days; and 6d-WAL: water ad libitum 6 days. AQP1 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blot in left ventricle, right atrium and thoracic aorta. RESULTS: Water restriction induced a hypohydration state in both age groups (40 and 25 % loss of body weight in 25- and 50-day-old rats, respectively), reversible with ORS therapy. Cardiac AQP1 was localized in the endocardium and endothelium in both age groups, being evident in cardiomyocytes membrane only in 50-day-old 3d-WR group, which presented increased protein levels of AQP1; no changes were observed in the ventricle of pups. In vascular tissue, AQP1 was present in the smooth muscle of pups; in the oldest group, it was found in the endothelium, increasing after rehydration in smooth muscle. No differences were observed between control groups 3d-WAL and 6d-WAL of both ages. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that cardiovascular AQP1 can be differentially regulated in response to hydration status in vivo, being this response dependent on postnatal growth. The lack of adaptive mechanisms of mature animals in young pups may indicate an important role of this water channel in maintaining fluid balance during hypovolemic state.European Journal of Nutrition 04/2013; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined water consumption patterns among US children. Additionally, recent data on total water consumption as it relates to the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are lacking. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and other beverages among US children by age group, gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity. Comparisons were also made to DRI values for water consumption from all sources. METHODS: Data from two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from 3 cycles of NHANES (2005--2006, 2007--2008 and 2009--2010) was used to assess water and beverage consumption among 4,766 children age 4-13y. Beverages were classified into 9 groups: water (tap and bottled), plain and flavored milk, 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks (regular and diet), fruit drinks, sports drinks, coffee, tea, and energy drinks. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to DRIs for the US. Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined. RESULTS: Water and other beverages contributed 70-75% of dietary water, with 25-30% provided by moisture in foods, depending on age. Plain water, tap and bottled, contributed 25-30% of total dietary water. In general, tap water represented 60% of drinking water volume whereas bottled water represented 40%. Non-Hispanic white children consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican-American children consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. No group of US children came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. At least 75% of children 4-8y, 87% of girls 9-13y, and 85% of boys 9-13y did not meet DRIs for total water intake. Water volume per 1,000 kcal, another criterion of adequate hydration, was 0.85-0.95 L/1,000 kcal, short of the desirable levels of 1.0-1.5 L/1,000 kcal. CONCLUSIONS: Water intakes at below-recommended levels may be a cause for concern. Data on water and beverage intake for the population and among socio-demographic group may provide useful information to target interventions for increasing water intake among children.Nutrition Journal 06/2013; 12(1):85. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the intake of fluid in healthy French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of consumption. Data regarding fluid intake were extracted and analyzed from the National Intake Survey, which was conducted in quota samples of the French population (Comportement et Consommations Alimentaires en France study). Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free-living individuals in 2002-2003. A total of 566 children (aged 6-11 years), 333 adolescents (aged 12-19 years), 831 adults (aged 20-54 years) and 443 seniors (aged >or=55 years) were included in this study. The average total intake of fluid was 1-1.3 l per day depending on age groups. Water accounted for about one-half of daily fluid intake. The contribution of other types of beverages varied with age (for example, dairy drinks in children and adolescents; alcoholic drinks in adults and seniors). Intake of sodas (including regular and light) was highest in adolescents (169 ml a day). Beverages were mainly consumed at home during meals. This is the first description of fluid intake in French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of intake. It shows that water is the main source of fluid in all age groups. Selection of various types of beverages is different according to age.European journal of clinical nutrition 02/2010; 64(4):350-5. · 3.07 Impact Factor