Hydration in children.

Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Heinstück 11, D-44225 Dortmund, Germany.
Journal of the American College of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 1.74). 11/2007; 26(5 Suppl):562S-569S. DOI: 10.1080/07315724.2007.10719659
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Water supply is a basic public problem. In modern science, three periods with different approaches to define recommended water intake in adults can be distinguished. Pediatricians agree that hydration in children may be optimal only in breastfed infants. More data are required on the health effects of different hydration states and varying water intakes in particular age and gender groups to define optimal ranges of water intake. The fetus grows in an exceptionally well-hydrated environment. Water metabolism shows several peculiarities in preterm and term infants. Infant diarrhea remains a major topic of basic and clinical research. Water intoxication in infants, toddlers, and children is rare and can only be found in exceptional circumstances. Hydration status characterized by hyponatremia may play a role in the pathogenesis of febrile convulsions in toddlers. There is increasing indirect evidence that spontaneous drinking behavior of a population may be fixed and anchored in the age range of toddlers. Sex differences in hydration status are common, but not obligatory. What causes theses differences? What is behind the various circadian rhythms of urine osmolality in children? At what age and in what quantities can alcohol and caffeine consumption be tolerated? How can individual susceptibility be defined? Reflecting on the modern epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents, a public consensus concerning use and misuse of sweetened drinks seems mandatory. Dietary reference intakes of water refer to 24-hour intake. In nutritional counselling, food and meal-based dietary advice is primarily given. Young parents are confronted with a flood of advice of varying quality. Recommendations on fluid consumption should be collated and revised.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The specific effects of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake on water balance and consequently on 24-h hydration status (HS) are unknown. In a large observational cohort of German children, we examined whether a higher F&V intake per se is associated with improved HS and attempted to quantify the influence of greater consumption of F&Vs on HS. A total of 1286 complete 3-d weighed dietary records and 24-h urine samples for 442 children (4- to 10-y-olds) collected in 2000-2010 in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed Study were analyzed. Free water reserve [FWR; urine volume (mL/24 h) minus obligatory urine volume (mL/24 h)] served as an HS biomarker. Median FWR and water balance variables were analyzed in different categories of solid-F&V intakes. Repeated-measures regression models (PROC MIXED; SAS Institute), adjusted for all other dietary water sources, were used to quantify the separate effects of solid-F&V and F&V-juice consumption on FWR. Negative FWR values, which indicated risk of hypohydration, were observed in 22% of children. FWR was significantly higher in solid-F&V consumers with high intakes than in those with low intakes (P < 0.0001). PROC MIXED models predicted an increase of 46 mL in FWR (average in boys and girls) when increasing solid-F&V intake by 100 g. Similar results were observed for F&V juice (β = 43, P < 0.0001). Drinking water and milk were the other significant dietary predictors of FWR. Solid F&Vs and F&V juices contributed 12% and 10%, respectively, to total water intake. These data confirm that regular intake of F&Vs may relevantly improve HS in children. Dietary interventions to increase F&V intake may be a promising strategy to achieve positive water balance in this population.
    American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 08/2013; · 6.50 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Increasing evidence demonstrates that risk factors for chronic diseases are established during childhood and adolescence. Consensus about the need to increase prevention efforts makes the adoption of a healthy lifestyle seem desirable from early childhood onwards. After reviewing educational tools for children and adolescents aimed at promoting a healthy lifestyle, it was recognized that there was a need to develop a simple educational tool specifically designed for these age groups. Methods: Development of the healthy lifestyle pyramid for children and adolescents. Results: We propose a three-dimensional, truncated and staggered pyramid with 4 faces and a base, which introduces a completely new concept that goes beyond other published pyramids. Each of the faces is oriented towards achieving a different goal. Two faces (faces 1 and 2) are formulated around achieving a goal on a daily basis (daily food intake, face 1, and daily activities, face 2). Face 3 is an adaptation of the traditional food guide pyramid, adapted to children’s energy, nutritional and hydration needs. Face 4 deals with both daily and life-long habits. On the base of the pyramid, there is advice about adequate nutrition alternating with advice about physical activity and sports. Conclusion: The Healthy Lifestyle Pyramid© is specifically developed for children and adolescents according to current scientific knowledge and evidence-based data and includes easy-to-follow advice and full colour pictures. Following these guidelines should improve health and reduce risk factors, promoting enjoyable and appropriate development towards adulthood.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 04/2008; 23(2):159-168. · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Introduction: Food allergy affects a large part of the population and their numbers are increasing. Although the knowing of this pathology is growing, allergic patients have really difficulties to lead a normal life, especially with food. Until now,this group hadn t practical tools that would help them in the development of a balanced daily diet, as there are for the general population in the form of pyramids and dietary guidelines . This work has covered this need for two of the most prevalent allergies in early life. Aims: gather information on the allergy of cow’s milk protein and egg, to design a food pyramid for these patients, based on the consensus, recommendations and scientific guidance. Results: After confirming the absence of a similar work, food pyramids allergy to egg and cow’s milk protein, adapted to each, and a joint pyramid is designed to both allergies. Besides basic recommendations for healthy eating were included in general and in particular individuals, with special interest for the collective (food hygiene, food additives, cosmetics, medicines, etc). Conclusions: Due to the importance of nutrition in childhood and acquires the underlying difficulties this group, to properly plan the diet is very important as it can prevent accidents and long-term nutritional deficiencies. Therefore provide graphical tools and practices to this goal, is importance for population and medical and scientific community, and is the result of this work.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 06/2014; (5)(29):1062-1069. · 1.31 Impact Factor