Mechanisms of acrolein-induced myocardial dysfunction: implications for environmental and endogenous aldehyde exposure.
ABSTRACT Aldehydes are ubiquitous pollutants generated during the combustion of organic materials and are present in air, water, and food. Several aldehydes are also endogenous products of lipid peroxidation and by-products of drug metabolism. Despite well-documented high reactivity of unsaturated aldehydes, little is known regarding their cardiovascular effects and their role in cardiac pathology. Accordingly, we examined the myocardial effects of the model unsaturated aldehyde acrolein. In closed-chest mice, intravenous acrolein (0.5 mg/kg) induced rapid but reversible left ventricular dilatation and dysfunction. In mouse myocytes, micromolar acrolein acutely depressed myofilament Ca(2+) responsiveness without altering catecholamine sensitivity, similar to the phenotype of stunned myocardium. Immunoblotting revealed increased acrolein-protein adducts and protein-carbonyls in both acrolein-exposed myocardium (1.8-fold increase, P < 0.002) and myocytes (6.4-fold increase, P < 0.02). Both the contractile dysfunction and adduct formation were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with the thiol donor N-acetylcysteine (5 mM). Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis revealed two groups of adducted proteins, sarcomeric/cytoskeletal proteins (cardiac alpha-actin, desmin, myosin light polypeptide 3) and energy metabolism proteins (mitochondrial creatine kinase-2, ATP synthase), indicating site-specific protein modification that was confirmed by immunohistochemical colocalization. We conclude that direct exposure to acrolein induces selective myofilament impairment, which may be, in part, related to the modification of proteins involved in myocardial contraction and energy metabolism. Myocardial dysfunction induced by acrolein and related aldehydes may be symptomatic of toxicological states associated with ambient or occupational exposures or drug toxicity. Moreover, aldehydes such as acrolein may mediate cardiac dysfunction in pathologies characterized by high-oxidative stress.
Article: Acrolein consumption exacerbates myocardial ischemic injury and blocks nitric oxide-induced PKCepsilon signaling and cardioprotection.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Aldehydes are common reactive constituents of food, water and air. Several food aldehydes are potentially carcinogenic and toxic; however, the direct effects of dietary aldehydes on cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that dietary consumption of aldehydes modulates myocardial IR injury and preconditioning. Mice were gavage-fed the alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehyde acrolein (5mg/kg) or water (vehicle) 24h prior to a 30-min coronary artery occlusion and 24-hour reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was significantly increased in acrolein-treated mice, demonstrating that acute acrolein exposure worsens cardiac IR injury. Furthermore, late cardioprotection afforded by the nitric oxide (NO) donor diethylenetriamine/NO (DETA/NO; dose: 0.1mg/kg x 4, i.v.) was abrogated by the administration of acrolein 2h prior to DETA/NO treatment, indicating that oral acrolein impairs NO donor-induced late preconditioning. To examine potential intracellular targets of aldehydes, we investigated the impact of acrolein on mitochondrial PKCepsilon signaling in the heart. Acrolein-protein adducts were formed in a dose-dependent manner in isolated cardiac mitochondria in vitro and specific acrolein-PKCepsilon adducts were present in cardiac mitochondrial fractions following acrolein exposure in vivo, demonstrating that mitochondria are major targets of aldehyde toxicity. Furthermore, DETA/NO preconditioning induced both PKCepsilon translocation and increased mitochondrial PKCepsilon localization. Both of these responses were blocked by acrolein pretreatment, providing evidence that aldehydes disrupt cardioprotective signaling events involving PKCepsilon. Consumption of an aldehyde-rich diet could exacerbate cardiac IR injury and block NO donor-induced cardioprotection via mechanisms that disrupt PKCepsilon signaling.Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 07/2008; 44(6):1016-22. · 5.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Annexins are calcium dependent phospholipid binding proteins that are expressed in a wide variety of tissues and implicated in various extra- and intracellular processes. In myocardial tissue, annexins A2, A5 and A6 are particularly abundant, of which the expression levels of annexin A6 has been found to be maximal. Conflicting reports from transgenic mice overexpressing annexin A6 or null mice lacking annexin A6 showed imbalances in intracellular calcium turnover and disturbed cardiac contractility. However, few studies have focussed on the signalling module of annexin A6 in the heart either in normal or in pathological state. To identify the putative binding partners of annexin A6 in the heart, ventricular extracts were subjected to glutathione S-transferase (GST)- annexin A6 pull down assay and the GST- annexin A6 bound proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. The pull down fractions of ventricular extracts with GST-full length annexin A6 as well as GST-C terminus deleted annexin A6 when immunoblotted with anti sarcomeric alpha (α)-actinin antibody showed the presence of α-actinin in the immunoblot which was absent when GST-N terminus deleted annexin A6 was used for pull down. Overexpression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) tagged full length annexin A6 showed z-line like appearance in cardiomyocytes whereas GFP-N termimus deleted annexin A6 was mostly localized to the nucleus. Overexpression of GFP-C terminus deleted annexin A6 in cardiomyocytes showed aggregate like appearance in the cytoplasm. Double immunofluorescent staining of cardiomyocytes with anti annexin A6 and anti sarcomeric α-actinin antibodies showed perfect co-localization of these two proteins with annexin A6 appearing like a component of sarcomere. Transient knockdown of annexin A6 in cardiomyocytes by shRNA significantly enhances the contractile functions but does not affect the z-band architecture, as revealed by α-actinin immunostaining in shRNA treated cells. In overall, the present study demonstrated for the first time that annexin A6 physically interacts with sarcomeric α-actinin and alters contractility of cardiomyocytes suggesting that it might play important role in excitation and contraction process.BMC Cell Biology 01/2011; 12:7. · 2.59 Impact Factor