Variability of Total and Pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus Densities in Northern Gulf of Mexico Water and Oysters

University of Southern Mississippi, Gulf Coast Research Laboratory, 703 East Beach Drive, Ocean Springs, MS 39564, USA.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology (Impact Factor: 3.67). 12/2007; 73(23):7589-96. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01700-07
Source: PubMed


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is indigenous to coastal environments and a frequent cause of seafood-borne gastroenteritis in the United States, primarily
due to raw-oyster consumption. Previous seasonal-cycle studies of V. parahaemolyticus have identified water temperature as the strongest environmental predictor. Salinity has also been identified, although it
is evident that its effect on annual variation is not as pronounced. The effects of other environmental factors, both with
respect to the seasonal cycle and intraseasonal variation, are uncertain. This study investigated intraseasonal variations
of densities of total and pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in oysters and overlying waters during the summer of 2004 at two sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Regression
analyses indicated significant associations (P < 0.001) between total V. parahaemolyticus densities and salinity, as well as turbidity in water and in oysters at the Mississippi site but not at the Alabama site.
Pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus organisms in Mississippi oyster and water samples were detected in 56% (9 out of 16) and 78% (43 out of 55) of samples, respectively.
In contrast, 44% (7 out of 16) of oyster samples and 30% (14 out of 47) of water samples from Alabama were positive. At both
sites, there was greater sample-to-sample variability in pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus densities than in total V. parahaemolyticus densities. These data suggest that, although total V. parahaemolyticus densities may be very informative, there is greater uncertainty when total V. parahaemolyticus densities are used to predict the risk of infection by pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus than previously recognized.

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    • "Results from studies by DePaola et al. (2003); Parveen et al. (2008), and Zimmerman et al. (2007) also apply to data from this site. The maximum water temperature (33.8 °C) observed at one of Zimmerman&apos;s (2007) MS sites was the same as the maximum water temperature (34 °C) seen at area 2– 12 in the present study. 2. MS—area 6–salinities were 3–25 ppt, and temperatures 26–31 °C. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram negative, halophilic bacterium that is ubiquitous in warm, tropical waters throughout the world. It is a major cause of seafood-associated gastroenteritis and is generally associated with consumption of raw or undercooked seafood, especially oysters. This study presents a snapshot of total V. parahaemolyticus densities in surface waters and shellstock American oysters (Crassostrea virginica) from open and closed shellfish harvesting areas, as well as "more rural areas" on two different US coasts, the Atlantic and the Gulf. Sampling was conducted from 2001 to 2003 at five sites near Charleston/Georgetown, SC and at four locations in the Gulfport/Pascagoula, MS area. V. parahaemolyticus numbers were determined by a direct plating method using an alkaline-phosphatase-labeled DNA probe targeting the species-specific thermolabile hemolysin gene (tlh) that was used for identification of bacterial isolates. The greatest difference between the two coasts was salinity; mean salinity in SC surface waters was 32.9 ppt, whereas the mean salinity in MS waters was 19.2 ppt, indicating more freshwater input into MS shellfish harvesting areas during the study period. The mean V. parahaemolyticus numbers in oysters were almost identical between the two states (567.4 vs. 560.1 CFU/g). Bacterial numbers in the majority of surface water samples from both states were at or below the limit of detection (LOD = <10 CFU/mL). The bacterial concentrations determined during this study predict a low public health risk from consumption of oysters in shellfish growing areas on either the Gulf or the Atlantic US coast.
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 08/2014; 186(11). DOI:10.1007/s10661-014-3979-z · 1.68 Impact Factor
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    • "Despite its broad distribution, V. parahemolyticus infections in the United States of America are most common in individuals living in the states bordering the Gulf of Mexico [2-4]. Water temperature, salinity and turbidity correlate with increased densities of pathogenic V. parahemolyticus [2,5]. Filter feeding animals such as shellfish, blue crabs, finfish and planktonic copepods concentrate V. parahemolyticus. "
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    ABSTRACT: Vibrio parahemolyticus is the leading cause of vibrio-associated gastroenteritis in the United States of America, usually related to poor food handling; only rarely has it been reported to cause serious infections including sepsis and soft tissue infections. In contrast, Vibrio vulnificus is a well-known cause of septicaemia, especially in patients with cirrhosis. We present a patient with V. parahemolyticus sepsis who had an orthotic liver transplant in 2007 and was on immunosuppression for chronic rejection. Clinical suspicion driven by patient presentation, travel to Gulf of Mexico and soft tissue infection resulted in early diagnosis and institution of appropriate antibiotic therapy. A 48 year old Latin American man with a history of chronic kidney disease, orthotic liver transplant in 2007 secondary to alcoholic end stage liver disease on immunosuppressants, and chronic rejection presented to the emergency department with fever, vomiting, abdominal pain, left lower extremity swelling and fluid filled blisters after a fishing trip in the Gulf of Mexico. Samples from the blister and blood grew V. parahemolyticus. The patient was successfully treated with ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Febrile patients with underlying liver disease and/or immunosuppression should be interviewed regarding recent travel to a coastal area and seafood ingestion. If this history is obtained, appropriate empiric antibiotics must be chosen. Patients with liver disease and/or immunosuppresion should be counselled to avoid eating raw or undercooked molluscan shellfish. People can prevent Vibrio sepsis and wound infections by proper cooking of seafood and avoiding exposure of open wounds to seawater or raw shellfish products.
    Journal of Medical Case Reports 05/2011; 5(1):171. DOI:10.1186/1752-1947-5-171
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    • "In this present study, Vibrio species were isolated more frequently and in larger densities during the summer months, which is consistent with the trends for clinical cases of Vibrio infections (Parveen et al., 2008), but this does not correspond with the low survival rates of Vibrio reported in vitro at summer temperatures (Zimmerman et al., 2007). Some previous studies have shown higher levels of V. parahaemolyticus in oysters (plankton) during warmer months and lower levels during cooler months (Cook et al., 2002; DePola et al., 2003; Duan and Su, 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: We assessed the seasonal abundance and distribution of Vibrio species as well as some selected environmental parameters in the treated effluents of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), one each located in a suburban and urban community of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Vibrio population density ranged from 2.1 × 10(5) to 4.36 × 10(4) CFU/ml in the suburban community and from 2.80 × 10(5) to 1.80 × 10(5) CFU/ml in the urban community. Vibrio species associated with 180 μ, 60 μ, and 20 μ plankton sizes were observed at densities of 0-136 × 10(3) CFU/ml, 0-8.40 × 10(2) CFU/ml, and 0-6.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml, respectively at the suburban community's WWTP. In the urban community, observed densities of culturable Vibrio were 0-2.80 × 10(2) CFU/ml (180 μ), 0-6.60 × 10(2) CFU/ml (60 μm), and 0-1.80 × 10(3) CFU/ml (20 μm). The abundance of free-living Vibrio species ranged from 0 to 1.0 × 10(2) and 1.0 × 10(3) CFU/ml in the suburban and urban communities' WWTPs, respectively. Molecular confirmation of the presumptive Vibrio isolates revealed the presence of V. fluvialis (41.38%), V. vulnificus (34.48%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24.14%) in the suburban community effluents. In the urban community molecular confirmation revealed that the same species were present at slightly different percentages, V. fluvialis (40%), V. vulnificus (36%), and V. parahaemolyticus (24%). There was no significant correlation between Vibrio abundance and season, either as free-living or plankton-associated entities, but Vibrio species abundance was positively correlated with temperature (r=0.565; p<0.01), salinity, and dissolved oxygen (p<0.05). Turbidity and pH showed significant seasonal variation (p<0.05) across the seasons in both locations. This study underscores the potential of WWTPs to be sources of Vibrio pathogens in the watershed of suburban and urban communities in South Africa.
    The Journal of Microbiology 04/2011; 49(2):224-32. DOI:10.1007/s12275-011-0227-x · 1.44 Impact Factor
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