Incidence of pneumococcal disease due to non-pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) serotypes in the United States during the era of widespread PCV7 vaccination, 1998-2004.
ABSTRACT Widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) resulted in decreases in invasive disease among children and elderly persons. The benefits may be offset by increases in disease due to serotypes not included in the vaccine (hereafter, "nonvaccine serotypes"). We evaluated the effect of PCV7 on incidence of disease due to nonvaccine serotypes.
Cases of invasive disease were identified in 8 geographic areas through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Active Bacterial Core surveillance. Serotyping and susceptibility testing of isolates were performed. We calculated the incidence of disease for children aged <5 years and adults aged > or =65 years. We compared rates of serotype-specific disease before and after PCV7 was licensed for use.
The annual incidence of disease due to nonvaccine serotypes increased from an average of 16.3 cases/100,000 population during prevaccine years (1998-1999) to 19.9 cases/100,000 population in 2004 for children aged <5 years (P=.01) and from 27.0 cases/100,000 population during prevaccine years to 29.8 cases/100,000 population in 2004 for adults aged > or =65 years (P=.05). Significant increases in the incidences of disease due to serotypes 3, 15, 19A, 22F, and 33F were observed among children during this period (P<.05 for each serotype); serotype 19A has become the predominant cause of invasive disease in children. The incidence of disease due to these serotypes also increased among elderly persons.
The incidence of pneumococcal disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes is increasing. Ongoing surveillance is needed to monitor the magnitude of disease caused by nonvaccine serotypes, to ensure that future vaccines target the appropriate serotypes.
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ABSTRACT: The introduction of a 7-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine (PCV7) in children largely affected the prevalence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia. In this study we investigated whether the clinical severity of adult bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia has also altered following the introduction of pediatric PCV7 vaccination. Adults hospitalized with bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia between 2001 and June 2011 at two Dutch hospitals were included retrospectively. Clinical data on patient characteristics, comorbidities and severity of disease were obtained and pneumococcal serotypes were determined. Among 343 patients investigated, those infected with PCV7 serotypes had a higher PSI score (p=0.0072) and mortality rate (p=0.0083) compared with the remainder of the cohort. Since the introduction of PCV7 the proportion of pneumococcal pneumonias caused by serotypes 1 and 7F (p-values 0.037 and 0.025) increased, as well as the rate of pleural effusion and empyema (p-values 0.011 and 0.049). Whilst de proportion of adults infected with PCV7 serotypes decreased after the introduction of PCV7 (p=0.015), PSI scores in these patients remained higher (p=0.030), although mortality rates between PCV7 and non PCV7 types equalized. After the introduction of PCV7 a marked shortening in hospital stay was observed only among patients infected with non PCV7 serotypes (p=0.019). After pediatric PCV7 vaccination, adult bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia was more frequently caused by serotype 1 or 7F and pleural effusion occurred more often. Although PSI scores remained higher among adults infected with PCV7 serotypes, mortality rates equalized between PCV7 and non PCV7 types alongside shortening of hospital stay in patients infected with PCV7 serotypes.Vaccine 05/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.04.089 · 3.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The majority of studies focused on the construction and reengineering of bacterial pathogens have mainly relied on the knocking out of virulence factors or deletion/mutation of amino acid residues to then observe the microbe's phenotype and the resulting effect on the host immune response. These knockout bacterial strains have also been proposed as vaccines to combat bacterial disease. Theoretically, knockout strains would be unable to cause disease since their virulence factors have been removed, yet they could induce a protective memory response. While knockout strains have been valuable tools to discern the role of virulence factors in host immunity and bacterial pathogenesis, they have been unable to yield clinically relevant vaccines. The advent of synthetic biology and enhanced user-directed gene customization has altered this binary process of knockout, followed by observation. Recent studies have shown that a researcher can now tailor and customize a given microbe's gene expression to produce a desired immune response. In this commentary, we highlight these studies as a new avenue for controlling the inflammatory response as well as vaccine development.02/2014; 2014:651568. DOI:10.1155/2014/651568
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ABSTRACT: The introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in the childhood immunisation programme in Norway in 2006 substantially decreased the incidence of vaccine-type (VT) invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in all age groups. Additionally, a slight increase in the non-vaccine (NVT) serotype IPD incidence (serotype replacement) was observed. After replacing PCV7 with PCV13 in 2011, a further decrease in IPD incidence is expected. However, the protection by the six additional serotypes opens new nasopharyngeal niches for colonisation, which favours conditions for serotype replacement. Close monitoring of IPD therefore remains important in order to quickly detect changes. In this observational retrospective population-based cohort study we used data notified nationally between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2012 to determine the VT- and NVT-IPD incidences. The diversity in serotype distribution per year was analysed using the Simpson's index of diversity. Immunisation history of young children was obtained from the Norwegian Vaccination Registry to determine vaccine failure. The incidence of VT-IPD decreased in the targeted (<5 years) and non-targeted (≥5) age groups since PCV7 introduction and further decreased after the replacement with PCV13. Only two cases of vaccine failure were identified. This indicates very high effectiveness of the 2+1 schedules with PCV7 or PCV13 and suggests that non-vaccinated individuals profit through indirect protection. The decrease in incidence of PCV7-IPD in non-targeted age groups became larger in later years, indicating a lag phase for the indirect effects, and suggests that the indirect protection of PCV13 will increase in coming years. The incidence of some NVT, specifically serotypes 23B and 15A, increased after PCV13 introduction. This coincided with an increased Simpson's index of diversity in the targeted age group. As this suggests that serotype replacement is again occurring, continues monitoring of IPD is important so that adaptations to vaccine recommendations can be promptly issued.Vaccine 10/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.032 · 3.49 Impact Factor