Article

Alzheimer and Parkinson diagnoses in progranulin null mutation carriers in an extended founder family.

VIB Department of Molecular Genetics, Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases Group, University of Antwerp CDE, Universiteitsplein 1, BE-2610 Antwerpen, Belgium.
JAMA Neurology (Impact Factor: 7.01). 10/2007; 64(10):1436-46. DOI: 10.1001/archneur.64.10.1436
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Progranulin gene (PGRN) haploinsufficiency was recently associated with ubiquitin-positive frontotemporal lobar degeneration linked to chromosome 17q21 (FTLDU-17).
To assess whether PGRN genetic variability contributed to other common neurodegenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer disease (AD) or Parkinson disease (PD).
Mutation analysis of PGRN.
Memory Clinic of the Middelheim General Hospital. Patients We analyzed 666 Belgian patients with AD and 255 with PD.
Results of PGRN sequencing, PGRN transcript analysis, short tandem repeat genotyping, and neuropathologic analysis.
We identified 2 patients with AD and 1 patient with PD who carried the null mutation IVS0 + 5G>C, which we reported earlier in an extensively characterized Belgian founder family, DR8, segregating FTLDU. Postmortem pathologic diagnosis of the patient with PD revealed both FTLDU and Lewy body pathologic features. In addition, we identified in PGRN only 1 other null mutation, the nonsense mutation p.Arg535X, in 1 patient with probable AD. However, in vitro analysis predicted a PGRN C-truncated protein, although it remains to be elucidated if this shortened transcript leads to haploinsufficiency.
Our mutation data indicated that null mutations are rare in patients with AD (3/666 = 0.45%) and PD (1/255 = 0.39%). Also, AD and PD clinical diagnoses in patients who carry PGRN null mutations likely result from etiologic heterogeneity rather than PGRN haploinsufficiency.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
114 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene are a common cause of familial frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The purpose of this review is to summarize the role of progranulin in health and disease, because the field is now poised to begin examining therapeutics that alter endogenous progranulin levels. We first review the clinical and neuropathological phenotype of FTD patients carrying mutations in the progranulin gene, which suggests that progranulin-mediated neurodegeneration is multifactorial and influenced by other genetic and/or environmental factors. We then examine evidence for the role of progranulin in the brain with a focus on mouse model systems. A better understanding of the complexity of progranulin biology in the brain will help guide the development of progranulin-modulating therapies for neurodegenerative disease.
    Trends in Neurosciences 05/2014; · 12.90 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Hexanucleotide repeat expansions in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9orf72) gene underlie a significant fraction of frontotemporal dementia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. OBJECTIVE To investigate the frequency of C9orf72 repeat expansions in clinically diagnosed late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS This case-control study genotyped the C9orf72 repeat expansion in 872 unrelated familial AD cases and 888 control subjects recruited as part of the National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease Family Study cohort, a multisite collaboration studying 1000 families with 2 or more individuals clinically diagnosed as having late-onset AD. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We determined the presence or absence of the C9orf72 repeat expansion by repeat-primed polymerase chain reaction, the length of the longest nonexpanded allele, segregation of the genotype with disease, and clinical features of repeat expansion carriers. RESULTS Three families showed large C9orf72 hexanucleotide repeat expansions. Two additional families carried more than 30 repeats. Segregation with disease could be demonstrated in 3 families. One affected expansion carrier had neuropathology compatible with AD. In the National Institute on Aging Late-Onset Alzheimer Disease Family Study series, the C9orf72 repeat expansions constituted the second most common pathogenic mutation, just behind the PSEN1 A79V mutation, highlighting the heterogeneity of clinical presentations associated with repeat expansions. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE C9orf72 repeat expansions explain a small proportion of patients with a clinical presentation indistinguishable from AD, and they highlight the necessity of screening frontotemporal dementia genes in clinical AD cases with strong family history.
    JAMA neurology. 04/2013;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremor, rigidity and akinesia/bradykinesia resulting from the progressive loss of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons. To date, only symptomatic treatment is available for PD patients, with no effective means of slowing or stopping the progression of the disease. Progranulin (PGRN) is a 593 amino acid multifunction protein that is widely distributed throughout the CNS, localized primarily in neurons and microglia. PGRN has been demonstrated to be a potent regulator of neuroinflammation and also acts as an autocrine neurotrophic factor, important for long-term neuronal survival. Thus, enhancing PGRN expression may strengthen the cells resistance to disease. In the present study, we have used the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) model of PD to investigate the possible use of PGRN gene delivery as a therapy for the prevention or treatment of PD. Viral vector delivery of the PGRN gene was an effective means of elevating PGRN expression in nigrostriatal neurons. When PGRN expression was elevated in the SNC, nigrostriatal neurons were protected from MPTP toxicity in mice, along with a preservation of striatal dopamine content and turnover. Further, protection of nigrostriatal neurons by PGRN gene therapy was accompanied by reductions in markers of MPTP-induced inflammation and apoptosis as well as a complete preservation of locomotor function. We conclude that PGRN gene therapy may have beneficial effects in the treatment of PD.
    PLoS ONE 05/2014; 9(5):e97032. · 3.53 Impact Factor

Full-text

Download
10 Downloads
Available from
Aug 14, 2014