Primary central nervous system vasculitis: analysis of 101 patients.
ABSTRACT To analyze the clinical findings, response to therapy, outcome, and incidence of primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNSV) in a large cohort from a single center.
We retrospectively studied 101 patients with PCNSV, selected by predetermined diagnostic criteria, who were seen during a 21-year period. This was a collaborative study by five departments at a large multispecialty clinic. Clinical findings and outcomes were compared among patients categorized by method of diagnosis, response to therapy, survival, and degree of disability. An annual incidence rate was calculated.
Seventy patients were diagnosed by angiography and 31 by central nervous system biopsy. Three histological patterns were observed during biopsy. Although most patients responded to therapy, an increased mortality rate was observed. Relapses occurred in one fourth of patients. Mortality rate and disability at last follow-up were greater in those who presented with a focal neurological deficit, cognitive impairment, cerebral infarctions, and angiographic large-vessel involvement but were lower in those with prominent gadolinium-enhanced lesions when evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. The annual incidence rate of PCNSV was 2.4 cases per 1,000,000 person-years.
PCNSV is a rare disease that may result in serious neurological outcomes or death. Angiography and brain biopsy may complement each other when determining the diagnosis. Early recognition and treatment may reduce poor outcomes. PCNSV is a variable syndrome that appears to consist of several subsets of heterogeneous diseases.
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ABSTRACT: Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS) is a rare disorder and is often difficult to diagnose due to the lack of a confirmatory test. PACNS can generally be diagnosed based on typical angiographic findings. We describe herein a patient diagnosed with PACNS despite the presence of normal findings on conventional angiography.Journal of clinical neurology (Seoul, Korea). 07/2014; 10(3):267-71.
Article: Thunderclap Headache.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Thunderclap headache (TCH) is a sudden severe headache that peaks to maximum intensity within 1 minute. Subarachnoid hemorrhage is the most commonly identified etiology for this headache, however, other secondary etiologies should be considered. Sentinel headache, reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, arterial dissection, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, pituitary apoplexy, intracranial hemorrhage, ischemic stroke, reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy, spontaneous intracranial hypotension, colloid cyst, and intracranial infections are other possible causes of TCH. Investigations for the etiology of TCH begin with noncontrast CT head and lumbar puncture. MR brain, CT angiogram, MR angiogram, or CT/MR venogram may need to be performed if the initial investigations are negative. Treatment and prognosis depend on the etiology of the TCH.Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports 04/2014; 14(4):437. · 3.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To describe characteristics and outcomes of a multicenter cohort of patients diagnosed as having primary angiitis of the central nervous system (PACNS). In 2010, we initiated a cohort study of adults diagnosed as having PACNS ≤15 years ago and with followup of >6 months (unless they died earlier of biopsy-proven PACNS). Its first analysis was planned at 2 years. Multidisciplinary investigators verified that appropriate investigations were done and excluded patients with possible alternative diagnoses. We analyzed patient demographics and symptoms, laboratory, radiographic, and histologic findings, and treatments. Studied outcomes included treatment response(s), relapse, death, and disability. We included 52 patients (30 males; median age at diagnosis 43.5 years [range 18-79 years]) in whom PACNS was diagnosed between 1996 and 2012. Nineteen (61%) of 31 patients who had undergone brain biopsy had histologic vasculitis (biopsy-proven PACNS), while the other 12 patients had normal or noncontributive biopsy samples. An additional 21 patients had signs suggestive of PACNS on conventional cerebral angiography. All but 1 patient received corticosteroids, and 44 patients received cyclophosphamide (CYC). After a median followup of 35 months (range 2-148 months) postdiagnosis (1 patient with biopsy-proven PACNS died 2 months after diagnosis), 32 patients responded to treatment with improved modified Rankin scale scores, 4 patients (8%) did not respond, 14 patients (27%) had relapse of their disease at least once, and 3 patients (6%) died (1 patient after a relapse). Relapse was more common in patients with than in those without meningeal gadolinium enhancements on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (8 of 10 [80%] versus 6 of 32 [19%]; P = 0.001) and more common in patients with than in those without seizures at diagnosis (8 of 17 [47%] versus 6 of 35 [17%]; P = 0.04). In this cohort of patients with PACNS, most patients received corticosteroids and CYC, and mortality was low. Patients with seizures at diagnosis or meningeal enhancements on MRI may be prone to relapse and require a different treatment strategy.Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.). 05/2014; 66(5):1315-1326.