Psychological stress and disease. JAMA, 298, 1685-1687

Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 11/2007; 298(14):1685-7. DOI: 10.1001/jama.298.14.1685
Source: PubMed


Despite widespread public belief that psychological stress leads to disease, the biomedical community remains skeptical of this conclusion. In this Commentary, we discuss the plausibility of the belief that stress contributes to a variety of disease processes and summarize the role of stress in 4 major diseases: clinical depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and cancer.Corresponding Author: Sheldon Cohen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 ( Disclosures: Dr Cohen reported consulting for Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc on issues of stress measurement. None of the other authors reported any financial disclosures.Role of the Sponsor: This article is based on a paper commissioned by the Institute of Medicine Committee on Psychosocial Services to Cancer Patients and Families in Community Settings. The Institute of Medicine suggested the topic but played no role in structuring the paper; in the collection, management, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.Additional Contributions: We thank David Krantz, PhD (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences), Margaret Kemeny, PhD (School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco), Stephen Manuck, PhD, and Karen Matthews, PhD (University of Pittsburgh), and Scott Monroe, PhD (Notre Dame University), for their comments on an earlier draft; the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health and members of the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center (HL65111, HL65112) for their intellectual support; and Ellen Conser, MA, Ashleigh Molz, and Wesley Barnhart, BS (Carnegie Mellon University), for assistance in preparing the manuscript. None of these individuals received any extra compensation for their contributions.

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    • "bjective happiness . Our findings were in line with our hypothesis that high scores on perceived stress may lead to increased levels of emotional disturbances and reduced levels of well - being and consistent with prior studies finding that people reporting higher stress experienced a much larger decrease in happiness and lower health indicators ( Cohen et al . , 2007 ; Schiffrin and Nelson , 2010 ) . Similarly , ERA was negatively and significantly related to depression symptoms and positively associated with happiness . These findings were congruent with earlier work showing that ERA is associated with a lower tendency to experience psychological maladjustment ( Hertel et al . , 2009 ) and report g"
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    ABSTRACT: This article examined the moderating role of a central core dimension of emotional intelligence—emotion-regulation ability—in the relationship between perceived stress and indicators of well-being (depression and subjective happiness) in a sample from a community adult population. The relationships for males and females on these dimensions were also compared. Results revealed that emotion-regulation abilities moderated both the association between perceived stress and depression/happiness for the total sample. However, a gender-specific analysis showed that the moderation effect was only significant for males. In short, when males reported a high level of perceived stress, those with high scores in regulating emotions reported higher scores in subjective happiness and lower depression symptoms than those with low regulating emotions. However, no interaction effect of regulating emotions and stress for predicting subjective happiness and depression was found for females. In developing stress management programmes for reducing depression and increasing well-being, these findings suggest that training in emotional regulation may be more beneficial for males than females. Our findings are discussed in terms of the need for future research to understand the different gender associations and to consider these differences in further intervention programmes.
    Frontiers in Psychology 10/2015; 6:1632. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01632 · 2.80 Impact Factor
    • "For instance, individuals from long-lived families display lower prevalence of agerelated diseases, such as cardiovascular and metabolic diseases (Schoenmaker et al., 2006; Rozing et al., 2010; Rozing et al., 2009; Westendorp et al., 2009). Since cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome have been associated with stress and increased cortisol levels (Wallerius et al., 2003; Seeman et al., 2010; Champaneri et al., 2012; Cohen et al., 2007; Rosmond, 2005), one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy human familial longevity might be a more adaptive stress response. "
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    ABSTRACT: Individuals enriched for familial longevity display a lower prevalence of age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular- and metabolic diseases. Since these diseases are associated with stress and increased cortisol levels, one of the underlying mechanisms that may contribute to healthy longevity might be a more adaptive response to stress. To investigate this, male middle-aged offspring from long-lived families (n=31) and male non-offspring (with no familial history of longevity) (n=26) were randomly allocated to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control condition in an experimental design. Physiological (cortisol, blood pressure, heart rate) and subjective responses were measured during the entire procedure. The results showed that Offspring had lower overall cortisol levels compared to Non-offspring regardless of condition, and lower absolute cortisol output (AUCg) during stress compared to Non-Offspring, while the increase (AUCi) did not differ between groups. In addition, systolic blood pressure in Offspring was lower compared to Non-offspring during the entire procedure. At baseline, Offspring had significantly lower systolic bloodpressure and reported less subjective stress than Non-offspring and showed a trend towards lower heart rate. Offspring from long-lived families might thus be less stressed prior to potentially stressful events and consequently show overall lower levels in physiological responses. Although attenuated physiological responding cannot be ruled out, lower starting points and a lower peak level in physiological responding when confronted with an actual stressor, might already limit damage due to stress over a lifetime. Lower physiological responding may also contribute to the lower prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other stress-related diseases in healthy longevity.
    Stress (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 10/2015; DOI:10.3109/10253890.2015.1105213 · 2.72 Impact Factor
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    • "Ele pode atuar como facilitador do desenvolvimento e progressão de diversas formas de adoecimento, com repercussão não apenas no indivíduo, mas também ressoar no entorno social em que a pessoa se insere ou compartilha (Miller, Chen, & Cole, 2009; Santos, 2010). Por defi nição, o estresse é um fenômeno psicossocial com repercussão biológica, que ocorre quando há à percepção de ameaça real ou imaginária que venha a ser interpretada como capaz de causar danos em nível psicológico ou físico de um indivíduo (Cohen et al., 2007; Santos, 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: This research aimed to collect data about self-perception of stress in Aracaju (SE), as well as to identify the presence of distress, to characterize the sociodemographic profile and health habits of the sample and map out relationships of these profiles on the variability of stress and distress. The sampling was performed by fl ow point, with 2135 adults that were in the main commercial center of Aracaju (SE). It used a questionnaire for characterization the sociodemographic and health profiles, whereas the stress and distress were measured by Faces Scale (seven points). For multivariate statistical analysis, it estimated the impact of sociodemographic and health variables on stress by linear regression, and on distress with logistic regression. Concerning the results, 15.1% of participants showed distress and the mean of the faces scale was three points (standard deviation = 1.5). The variables income, gender, to smoke and physical activity practice showed statistical significance in relation to stress. In modeling by linear and logistic regression, to smoke and female sex have been additive impact on stress. The average family income (equal to or above ten minimum wages) and practice regular physical activity have been subtractive impact on stress. We also discussed, besides the models, features of stress measure and differences observed in analysis by linear and logistic regression. At the end, study limitations were highlighted, especially concerning the choice of Faces Scale, and suggestions for further research were also made.
    Temas em Psicologia 08/2015; 23(2):341-354. DOI:10.9788/TP2015.2-08
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