Psychological stress and disease. JAMA, 298, 1685-1687
ABSTRACT Despite widespread public belief that psychological stress leads to disease, the biomedical community remains skeptical of this conclusion. In this Commentary, we discuss the plausibility of the belief that stress contributes to a variety of disease processes and summarize the role of stress in 4 major diseases: clinical depression, cardiovascular disease (CVD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS, and cancer.Corresponding Author: Sheldon Cohen, PhD, Department of Psychology, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (firstname.lastname@example.org).Financial Disclosures: Dr Cohen reported consulting for Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies Inc on issues of stress measurement. None of the other authors reported any financial disclosures.Role of the Sponsor: This article is based on a paper commissioned by the Institute of Medicine Committee on Psychosocial Services to Cancer Patients and Families in Community Settings. The Institute of Medicine suggested the topic but played no role in structuring the paper; in the collection, management, and interpretation of the data; or the preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.Additional Contributions: We thank David Krantz, PhD (Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences), Margaret Kemeny, PhD (School of Medicine, University of California at San Francisco), Stephen Manuck, PhD, and Karen Matthews, PhD (University of Pittsburgh), and Scott Monroe, PhD (Notre Dame University), for their comments on an earlier draft; the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Network on Socioeconomic Status and Health and members of the Pittsburgh Mind-Body Center (HL65111, HL65112) for their intellectual support; and Ellen Conser, MA, Ashleigh Molz, and Wesley Barnhart, BS (Carnegie Mellon University), for assistance in preparing the manuscript. None of these individuals received any extra compensation for their contributions.
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- "Ele pode atuar como facilitador do desenvolvimento e progressão de diversas formas de adoecimento, com repercussão não apenas no indivíduo, mas também ressoar no entorno social em que a pessoa se insere ou compartilha (Miller, Chen, & Cole, 2009; Santos, 2010). Por defi nição, o estresse é um fenômeno psicossocial com repercussão biológica, que ocorre quando há à percepção de ameaça real ou imaginária que venha a ser interpretada como capaz de causar danos em nível psicológico ou físico de um indivíduo (Cohen et al., 2007; Santos, 2010). "
ABSTRACT: Resumo A presente pesquisa objetivou levantar dados a respeito da autopercepção de estresse em Aracaju (SE), como também, identifi car a presença de distresse, caracterizar o perfi l sociodemográfi co e dos hábitos de saúde da amostra, além de mapear relações desses perfi s quanto à variabilidade do estresse e do dis-tresse. A amostragem foi realizada por meio da técnica do ponto-de-fl uxo, em que participaram 2135 transeuntes adultos que se encontravam no principal centro comercial de Aracaju (SE). Utilizou-se um questionário para caracterização sociodemográfi ca e de hábitos de saúde, enquanto que o estresse e o distresse foram mensurados com a Escala de Faces (sete pontos). Para a análise estatística foi estimado o impacto das variáveis sobre o estresse, por meio de regressão linear, e sobre o distresse, com regressão logística. Quanto aos resultados, 15,1% dos participantes apresentaram distresse e a média na escala de faces foi de três pontos (Desvio-Padrão = 1,5). As variáveis renda, sexo, tabagismo e prática de ativida-de física exibiram signifi cância estatística em relação ao estresse. Nas modelagens por regressão linear e logística, as variáveis com impacto aditivo sobre o estresse foram o tabagismo e o sexo feminino, e com impacto subtrativo a renda média familiar (igual ou acima de dez salários mínimos) e a prática de atividade física regular. Discutiram-se, além dos modelos, características da medida do estresse e diferenças observadas nas análises via regressão linear e logística. Ao fi nal, apontaram-se limitações do estudo, especialmente quanto à escolha da Escala de Faces, como também, foram sugeridas novas possibilidades de pesquisa. Palavras-chave: Estresse, distresse, escala de faces, perfi l sociodemográfi co, hábitos de saúde. Abstract This research aimed to collect data about self-perception of stress in Aracaju (SE), as well as to identify the presence of distress, to characterize the sociodemographic profi le and health habits of the sample and map out relationships of these profi les on the variability of stress and distress. The sampling was performed by fl ow point, with 2135 adults that were in the main commercial center of Aracaju (SE). It used a questionnaire for characterization the sociodemographic and health profi les, whereas the stress and distress were measured by Faces Scale (seven points). For multivariate statistical analysis, it estimated the impact of sociodemographic and health variables on stress by linear regression, and on distress with logistic regression. Concerning the results, 15.1% of participants showed distress and the mean of the faces scale was three points (standard deviation = 1.5). The variables income, gender, to smoke and physical activity practice showed statistical signifi cance in relation to stress. In modeling by linear and logistic regression, to smoke and female sex have been additive impact on stress. The average family income (equal to or above ten minimum wages) and practice regular physical activity have been subtractive impact on stress. We also discussed, besides the models, features of stress measure and differences observed in analysis by linear and logistic regression. At the end, study limitations were highlighted, especially concerning the choice of Faces Scale, and suggestions for further research were also made. Keywords: Stress, distress, faces scale, sociodemographic profile, health habits.Temas em Psicologia 08/2015; 23(2):341-354. DOI:10.9788/TP2015.2-08
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- "One of the prominent causes of this burden is the very limited understanding of the processes underlying vulnerability to psychopathology. The quality of the living environment is among the largest risk factors for MD, with exposure to stressful events representing one of the most powerful triggers of depressive episodes (Cohen et al., 2007; Davidson and McEwen, 2012). However, this vulnerability differs between individuals. "
ABSTRACT: Chronic stress is one of the most relevant triggering factors for major depression. Microglial cells are highly sensitive to stress and, more generally, to environmental challenges. However, the role of these brain immune cells in mediating the effects of stress is still unclear. Fractalkine signaling - which comprises the chemokine CX3CL1, mainly expressed by neurons, and its receptor CX3CR1, almost exclusively present on microglia in the healthy brain - has been reported to critically regulate microglial activity. Here, we investigated whether interfering with microglial function by deleting the Cx3cr1 gene affects the brain's response to chronic stress. To this purpose, we housed Cx3cr1 knockout and wild-type adult mice in either control or stressful environments for 2weeks, and investigated the consequences on microglial phenotype and interactions with synapses, synaptic transmission, behavioral response and corticosterone levels. Our results show that hampering neuron-microglia communication via the CX3CR1-CX3CL1 pathway prevents the effects of chronic unpredictable stress on microglial function, short- and long-term neuronal plasticity and depressive-like behavior. Overall, the present findings suggest that microglia-regulated mechanisms may underlie the differential susceptibility to stress and consequently the vulnerability to diseases triggered by the experience of stressful events, such as major depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.Brain Behavior and Immunity 07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.bbi.2015.07.024 · 5.89 Impact Factor
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- " van Winkel et al . , 2008 ) . Somatic complaints related to stress can range from minor or mild symptoms and diseases such as sore throat , headaches and influenza , to life threatening conditions such as heart attacks , cancer , and organ failure ( Selye , 1976 ; DeLongis et al . , 1988 ; Kiecolt - Glaser et al . , 1992 ; Reiche et al . , 2004 ; Cohen et al . , 2007 ) . Further , chronic diseases can be triggered by high levels of stress ( Kendall - Tackett , 2010 ) . In particular , the onset of autoimmune diseases is preceded by important stress episodes in 80% of cases ( Herrmann et al . , 2000 ; Stojanovich and Marisavljevich , 2008 ) . Differentiated exposure to stressors explains part of the "
ABSTRACT: Women have a life-expectancy advantage over men, but a marked disadvantage with regards to morbidity. This is known as the female–male health-survival paradox in disciplines such as medicine, medical sociology, and epidemiology. Individual differences in physical and mental health are further notably explained by the degree of stress individuals endure, with women being more affected by stressors than men. Here, we briefly examine the literature on women’s disadvantage in health and stress. Beyond biological considerations, we follow with socio-cognitive explanations of gender differences in health and stress. We show that gender roles and traits (masculinity in particular) explain part of the gender differences in stress, notably cognitive appraisal and coping. Stress in turn degrades health. Implications are discussed. In conclusion, traditional socialization is advantageous for men in terms of health.Frontiers in Psychology 06/2015; 6:779. DOI:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00779 · 2.80 Impact Factor