Longitudinal, quantitative assessment of amyloid, neuroinflammation, and anti-amyloid treatment in a living mouse model of Alzheimer's disease enabled by positron emission tomography.
ABSTRACT We provide the first evidence for the capability of a high-resolution positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging system in quantitatively mapping amyloid accumulation in living amyloid precursor protein transgenic (Tg) mice. After the intravenous administration of N-[11C]methyl-2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (or [11C]PIB for "Pittsburgh Compound-B") with high-specific radioactivity, the Tg mice exhibited high-level retention of radioactivity in amyloid-rich regions. PET investigation for Tg mice over an extended range of ages, including longitudinal assessments, demonstrated age-dependent increase in radioligand binding consistent with progressive amyloid accumulation. Reduction in amyloid levels in the hippocampus of Tg mice was also successfully monitored by multiple PET scans along the time course of anti-amyloid treatment using an antibody against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). Moreover, PET scans with [18F]fluoroethyl-DAA1106, a radiotracer for activated glia, were conducted for these individuals parallel to amyloid imaging, revealing treatment-induced neuroinflammatory responses, the magnitude of which intimately correlated with the levels of pre-existing amyloid estimated by [11C]PIB. It is also noteworthy that the localization and abundance of [11C]PIB autoradiographic signals were closely associated with those of N-terminally truncated and modified Abeta, AbetaN3-pyroglutamate, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Tg mouse brains, implying that the detectability of amyloid by [11C]PIB positron emission tomography is dependent on the accumulation of specific Abeta subtypes. Our results support the usefulness of the small animal-dedicated PET system in conjunction with high-specific radioactivity probes and appropriate Tg models not only for clarifying the mechanistic properties of amyloidogenesis in mouse models but also for preclinical tests of emerging diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD.
- SourceAvailable from: Rafael Franco
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although N-truncated Aβ variants are known to be the main constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, their potential as targets for pharmacological intervention has only recently been investigated. In the last few years, the Alzheimer field has experienced a paradigm shift with the ever increasing understanding that targeting amyloid plaques has not led to a successful immunotherapy. On the other hand, there can be no doubt that the amyloid cascade hypothesis is central to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, raising the question as to why it is apparently failing to translate into the clinic. In this review, we aim to refocus the amyloid hypothesis integrating N-truncated Aβ peptides based on mounting evidence that they may represent better targets than full-length Aβ. In addition to Aβ peptides starting with an Asp at position 1, a variety of different N-truncated Aβ peptides have been identified starting with amino residue Ala-2, pyroglutamylated Glu-3, Phe-4, Arg-5, His-6, Asp-7, Ser-8, Gly-9, Tyr-10 and pyroglutamylated Glu-11. Certain forms of N-truncated species are better correlates for early pathological changes found pre-symptomatically more often than others. There is also evidence that, together with full-length Aβ, they might be physiologically detectable and are naturally secreted by neurons. Others are known to form soluble aggregates, which have neurotoxic properties in transgenic mouse models. It has been clearly demonstrated by several groups that some N-truncated Aβs dominate full-length Aβ in the brains of Alzheimer's patients. We try to address which of the N-truncated variants may be promising therapeutic targets and which enzymes might be involved in the generation of these peptides.Acta Neuropathologica 05/2014; · 9.73 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: In Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular pathology may interact with neurodegeneration and thus aggravate cognitive decline. As the relationship between these two processes is poorly understood, research has been increasingly focused on understanding the link between cerebrovascular alterations and AD. This has at last been spurred by the engineering of transgenic animals, which display pathological features of AD and develop cerebral amyloid angiopathy to various degrees. Transgenic models are versatile for investigating the role of amyloid deposition and vascular dysfunction, and for evaluating novel therapeutic concepts. In addition, research has benefited from the development of novel imaging techniques, which are capable of characterizing vascular pathology in vivo. They provide vascular structural read-outs and have the ability to assess the functional consequences of vascular dysfunction as well as to visualize and monitor the molecular processes underlying these pathological alterations. This article focusses on recent in vivo small animal imaging studies addressing vascular aspects related to AD. With the technical advances of imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance, nuclear and microscopic imaging, molecular, functional and structural information related to vascular pathology can now be visualized in vivo in small rodents. Imaging vascular and parenchymal amyloid-β (Aβ) deposition as well as Aβ transport pathways have been shown to be useful to characterize their dynamics and to elucidate their role in the development of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and AD. Structural and functional imaging read-outs have been employed to describe the deleterious affects of Aβ on vessel morphology, hemodynamics and vascular integrity. More recent imaging studies have also addressed how inflammatory processes partake in the pathogenesis of the disease. Moreover, imaging can be pivotal in the search for novel therapies targeting the vasculature.Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience 01/2014; 6:32. · 5.20 Impact Factor