Longitudinal, quantitative assessment of amyloid, neuroinflammation, and anti-amyloid treatment in a living mouse model of Alzheimer's disease enabled by positron emission tomography
ABSTRACT We provide the first evidence for the capability of a high-resolution positron emission tomographic (PET) imaging system in quantitatively mapping amyloid accumulation in living amyloid precursor protein transgenic (Tg) mice. After the intravenous administration of N-[11C]methyl-2-(4'-methylaminophenyl)-6-hydroxybenzothiazole (or [11C]PIB for "Pittsburgh Compound-B") with high-specific radioactivity, the Tg mice exhibited high-level retention of radioactivity in amyloid-rich regions. PET investigation for Tg mice over an extended range of ages, including longitudinal assessments, demonstrated age-dependent increase in radioligand binding consistent with progressive amyloid accumulation. Reduction in amyloid levels in the hippocampus of Tg mice was also successfully monitored by multiple PET scans along the time course of anti-amyloid treatment using an antibody against amyloid beta peptide (Abeta). Moreover, PET scans with [18F]fluoroethyl-DAA1106, a radiotracer for activated glia, were conducted for these individuals parallel to amyloid imaging, revealing treatment-induced neuroinflammatory responses, the magnitude of which intimately correlated with the levels of pre-existing amyloid estimated by [11C]PIB. It is also noteworthy that the localization and abundance of [11C]PIB autoradiographic signals were closely associated with those of N-terminally truncated and modified Abeta, AbetaN3-pyroglutamate, in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Tg mouse brains, implying that the detectability of amyloid by [11C]PIB positron emission tomography is dependent on the accumulation of specific Abeta subtypes. Our results support the usefulness of the small animal-dedicated PET system in conjunction with high-specific radioactivity probes and appropriate Tg models not only for clarifying the mechanistic properties of amyloidogenesis in mouse models but also for preclinical tests of emerging diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AD.
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ABSTRACT: The brains of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are characterized by deposits of Abeta peptides and by accompanying chronic inflammation. Here, we provide evidence that the enzyme isoglutaminyl cyclase (isoQC) is a novel factor contributing to both aspects of AD pathology. Two putative substrates of isoQC, N-truncated Abeta peptides and the monocyte chemoattractant chemokine CCL2, undergo isoQC-catalyzed pyroglutamate (pGlu) modification. This triggers Abeta aggregation and facilitates the biological activity of CCL2, which collectively results in the formation of high molecular weight Abeta aggregates, glial cell activation, neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death. In mouse brain, we found isoQC to be neuron-specifically expressed in neocortical, hippocampal and subcortical structures, localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus as well as co-expressed with its substrate CCL2. In aged APP transgenic Tg2576 mice, both isoQC and CCL2 mRNA levels are up-regulated and isoQC and CCL2 proteins were found to be co-induced in Abeta plaque-associated reactive astrocytes. Also, in mouse primary astrocyte culture, a simultaneous up-regulation of isoQC and CCL2 expression was revealed upon Abeta and pGlu-Abeta stimulation. In brains of AD patients, the expression of isoQC and CCL2 mRNA and protein is up-regulated compared to controls and correlates with pGlu-Abeta load and with the decline in mini-mental state examination. Our observations provide evidence for a dual involvement of isoQC in AD pathogenesis by catalysis of pGlu-Abeta and pGlu-CCL2 formation which mutually stimulate inflammatory events and affect cognition. We conclude that isoQC inhibition may target both major pathological events in the development of AD.Acta Neuropathologica 02/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00401-015-1395-2 · 9.78 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In an effort to develop a new SPECT imaging agent for the translocator protein (TSPO), a series of novel iodinated quinoline-2-carboxamides have been synthesised and evaluated for binding affinity using rat brain homogenates. The outcome of the biological testing in combination with HPLC determination of the physicochemical properties of these compounds directed the design of new analogues resulting in 4-(2-iodophenyl)quinoline-2-N-diethylcarboxamide, a new TSPO ligand with higher affinity than the widely used clinical imaging agent PK11195.Medicinal Chemistry Communication 11/2013; 4(11):1461. DOI:10.1039/c3md00249g · 2.63 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to compare [18F]-florbetaben PET imaging in four transgenic mouse strains modelling Alzheimer's disease (AD), with the main focus on APPswe/PS2 mice and C57Bl/6 mice serving as controls (WT). A consistent PET protocol (N = 82 PET scans) was used, with cortical standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) relative to cerebellum as the endpoint. We correlated methoxy-X04 staining of β-amyloid with PET results, and undertook ex vivo autoradiography for further validation of a partial volume effect correction (PVEC) of PET data. The SUVR in APPswe/PS2 increased from 0.95±0.04 at five months (N = 5) and 1.04±0.03 (p<0.05) at eight months (N = 7) to 1.07±0.04 (p<0.005) at ten months (N = 6), 1.28±0.06 (p<0.001) at 16 months (N = 6) and 1.39±0.09 (p<0.001) at 19 months (N = 6). SUVR was 0.95±0.03 in WT mice of all ages (N = 22). In APPswe/PS1G384A mice, the SUVR was 0.93/0.98 at five months (N = 2) and 1.11 at 16 months (N = 1). In APPswe/PS1dE9 mice, the SUVR declined from 0.96/0.96 at 12 months (N = 2) to 0.91/0.92 at 24 months (N = 2), due to β-amyloid plaques in cerebellum. PVEC reduced the discrepancy between SUVR-PET and autoradiography from -22% to +2% and increased the differences between young and aged transgenic animals. SUVR and plaque load correlated highly between strains for uncorrected (R = 0.94, p<0.001) and PVE-corrected (R = 0.95, p<0.001) data. We find that APPswe/PS2 mice may be optimal for longitudinal amyloid-PET monitoring in planned interventions studies.PLoS ONE 02/2015; 10(2):e0116678. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0116678 · 3.53 Impact Factor