We investigated the effect of Adrenomedullin (AM) on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. AM treatment (100 ng/kg per rat, subcutaneous) after one hour of cerulein injection reduced the plasma amylase levels, pancreatic weight, pancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and the severity of the lesions microscopically. These data suggest that AM has a protective effect on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. These could be due to anti-inflammatory properties of AM, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, reducing the endothelial permeability increased by reactive oxygen species, endotoxins or cytokines.
"Slides were examined using an Olympus BX50 microscope (Olympus, Tokyo, Japan) at 100Â magnification and analyzed by a blinded pathologist. Each pancreatic tissue was evaluated for histopathological changes modified from Onur et al. (2007) and Virlos et al. (2003), including edema, inflammatory cell infiltrate and acinar necrosis. These changes were graded from 0 to 3 according to the following criteria. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Abstract We aimed to investigate whether oral intralipid emulsion (OIE) reduces pancreatic β-cell injury (PβCI) by chelating with malathion (M), or increases PβCI by increasing M absorption in the stomach. Fifty rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group (C); OIE administered group (L); M-treated group (M); OIE-administered group immediately after given M (M0L); OIE-administered group 6 hours after being given M (M6L) and OIE administered group 12 hours after being given M (M12L). M induced PβCI, hyperglycemia, temporary hyperinsulinemia and oxidative stress (OS). However, there was no significant difference in serum levels of glucose, insulin, total oxidants (TOS) and liver TOS between the M0L group and groups C and L. Also, insulin levels of M12L significantly increased, compared to the M6L group. Biochemical results, which were confirmed by histopathology, indicate that administering OIE after 6 hours and immediately after taking M may markedly prevent PβCI, hyperglycemia and OS. In addition, OIE's effectiveness decreased after 6 hours and was totally ineffective after 12 hours. We concluded that OIE may help to achieve a better prognosis and reduce mortality rate in cases presented to the emergency department, particularly within the first 6 hours, resulting from organophosphate pesticide poisoning by oral ingestion.
Drug and Chemical Toxicology 11/2013; 37(3). DOI:10.3109/01480545.2013.838780 · 1.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose Adrenomedullin is a 52-amino acid peptide that acts on inflammatory cells, reduces endothelial permeability increased by reactive oxygen species, endotoxins or cytokines and thus may limit the formation of inflammatory exudates. We have investigated the effect of prophylactic adrenomedullin (ADM) treatment in cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats. Results The increase in amylase was markedly reduced in the ADM pretreatment group and was lower than the pancreatitis group, and this was statistically significant. Prophylactic treatment with ADM resulted in a significant reduction of pancreatic injury determined by pathological pancreatic injury score. Tissue MDA levels were markedly reduced by prophylactic ADM treatment. Conclusion ADM has a protective effect on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. These could be due to anti-inflammatory properties of ADM, inhibition of proinflammatory cytokine secretion, reducing the endothelial permeability increased by reactive oxygen species, endotoxins or cytokines.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Borrelia burgdorferi stimulates a strong inflammatory response during infection of a mammalian host. To understand the mechanisms of immune regulation employed by the host to control this inflammatory response, we focused our studies on adrenomedullin, a peptide produced in response to bacterial stimuli that exhibits antimicrobial activity and regulates inflammatory responses by modulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Specifically, we investigated the effect of B. burgdorferi on the expression of adrenomedullin as well as the ability of adrenomedullin to dampen host inflammatory responses to the spirochete. The concentration of adrenomedullin in the synovial fluid of untreated Lyme arthritis patients was elevated compared with that in control osteoarthritis patient samples. In addition, coculture with B. burgdorferi significantly increased the expression of adrenomedullin in RAW264.7 macrophages through MyD88-, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)-, and p38-dependent signaling cascades. Furthermore, the addition of exogenous adrenomedullin to B. burgdorferi-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages resulted in a significant decrease in the induction of proinflammatory cytokines. Taken together, these results suggest that B. burgdorferi increases the production of adrenomedullin, which in turn negatively regulates the B. burgdorferi-stimulated inflammatory response.
Infection and immunity 10/2010; 78(12):5307-13. DOI:10.1128/IAI.00630-10 · 3.73 Impact Factor
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