Anaerobic elemental sulfur reduction by fungus Fusarium oxysporum.
ABSTRACT Reduction of inorganic sulfur compounds by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum was examined. When transferred from a normoxic to an anoxic environment, F. oxysporum reduced elemental sulfur to hydrogen sulfide (H2S). This reaction accompanied fungal growth and oxidation of the carbon source (ethanol) to acetate. Over 2-fold more of H2S than of acetate was produced, which is the theoretical correlation for the oxidation of ethanol to acetate. NADH-dependent sulfur reductase (SR) activity was detected in cell-free extracts of the H2S-producing fungus, and was found to be up-regulated under the anaerobic conditions. On the other hands both O2 consumption by the cells and cytochrome c oxidase activity by the crude mitochondrial fractions decreased. These results indicate that H2S production involving SR was due to a novel dissimilation mechanism of F. oxysporum, and that the fungus adapts to anaerobic conditions by replacing the energy-producing mechanism of O2 respiration with sulfur reduction.
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ABSTRACT: Major insights into the phylogenetic distribution, biochemistry, and evolutionary significance of organelles involved in ATP synthesis (energy metabolism) in eukaryotes that thrive in anaerobic environments for all or part of their life cycles have accrued in recent years. All known eukaryotic groups possess an organelle of mitochondrial origin, mapping the origin of mitochondria to the eukaryotic common ancestor, and genome sequence data are rapidly accumulating for eukaryotes that possess anaerobic mitochondria, hydrogenosomes, or mitosomes. Here we review the available biochemical data on the enzymes and pathways that eukaryotes use in anaerobic energy metabolism and summarize the metabolic end products that they generate in their anaerobic habitats, focusing on the biochemical roles that their mitochondria play in anaerobic ATP synthesis. We present metabolic maps of compartmentalized energy metabolism for 16 well-studied species. There are currently no enzymes of core anaerobic energy metabolism that are specific to any of the six eukaryotic supergroup lineages; genes present in one supergroup are also found in at least one other supergroup. The gene distribution across lineages thus reflects the presence of anaerobic energy metabolism in the eukaryote common ancestor and differential loss during the specialization of some lineages to oxic niches, just as oxphos capabilities have been differentially lost in specialization to anoxic niches and the parasitic life-style. Some facultative anaerobes have retained both aerobic and anaerobic pathways. Diversified eukaryotic lineages have retained the same enzymes of anaerobic ATP synthesis, in line with geochemical data indicating low environmental oxygen levels while eukaryotes arose and diversified.Microbiology and molecular biology reviews: MMBR 06/2012; 76(2):444-95. · 12.59 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The highly constitutively active G-protein coupled receptor US28 of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an interesting pharmacological target because of its implication on viral dissemination, cardiovascular diseases and tumorigenesis. We found that dihydroisoquinolinone and tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffolds may be promising lead structures for novel US28 allosteric inverse agonists. These scaffolds were rapidly synthesized by radical carboamination reactions followed by non-radical transformations. Our novel US28 allosteric modulators provide valuable scaffolds for further ligand optimization and may be helpful chemical tools to investigate molecular mechanisms of US28 constitutive signaling and its role in pathogenesis.Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters 09/2011; 21(18):5446-50. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A nearly 5-year anaerobic incubation experiment was conducted to observe the geochemical evolution of an acidic mine waste. Long-term storage of the mine waste under strict anaerobic conditions caused marked increase in aqueous sulfur, while aqueous iron showed no remarkable change. Co-existing oxidation and reduction of elemental sulfur appeared to play a central role in controlling the evolutionary trends of aqueous sulfur and iron. Addition of organic matter increased the aqueous Fe concentration, possibly due to enhanced iron mobilization by microbial iron reduction and increased iron solubility by forming organically complexed Fe species. Further addition of CaCO3 resulted in immobilization of aqueous iron and sulfur due to elevated pH and gypsum formation. The chemical behaviors of environmentally significant metals were markedly affected by the added organic matter; Al, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn tended to be immobilized probably due to elevated pH and complexation with insoluble organic molecules, while As and Pb tended to be mobilized. Jarosite exhibited high stability after nearly 5 years of anaerobic incubation and even under circumneutral pH conditions. Long-term weathering of aluminosilicate through acid attack raised pH, while continuous reaction between the added CaCO3 and mine waste-borne stored acid decreased pH.Environmental Geochemistry and Health 03/2013; · 2.08 Impact Factor