The anti-microbial peptide human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), produced by epidermal keratinocytes, plays pivotal roles in anti-microbial defense, inflammatory dermatoses, and wound repair. hBD-2 induces histamine release from mast cells. We examined the in vitro effects of histamine on hBD-2 production in normal human keratinocytes. Histamine enhanced TNF-alpha- or IFN-gamma-induced hBD-2 secretion and mRNA expression. Histamine alone enhanced transcriptional activities of NF-kappaB and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and potentiated TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappaB and AP-1 activities or IFN-gamma-induced NF-kappaB and STAT1 activities. Antisense oligonucleotides against NF-kappaB components p50 and p65, AP-1 components c-Jun and c-Fos, or H1 antagonist pyrilamine suppressed hBD-2 production induced by histamine plus TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. Antisense oligonucleotide against STAT1 only suppressed hBD-2 production induced by histamine plus IFN-gamma. Histamine induced serine phosphorylation of inhibitory NF-kappaBalpha (IkappaBalpha) alone or together with TNF-alpha or IFN-gamma. Histamine induced c-Fos mRNA expression alone or together with TNF-alpha, whereas it did not further increase c-Jun mRNA levels enhanced by TNF-alpha. Histamine induced serine phosphorylation of STAT1 alone or together with IFN-gamma, whereas it did not further enhance IFN-gamma-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1. The histamine-induced serine phosphorylation of STAT1 was suppressed by MAPKK (MEK) inhibitor PD98059. These results suggest that histamine stimulates H1 receptor and potentiates TNF-alpha- or IFN-gamma-induced hBD-2 production dependent on NF-kappaB, AP-1, or STAT1 in human keratinocytes. Histamine may potentiate anti-microbial defense, skin inflammation, and wound repair via the induction of hBD-2.
"Melatonin metabolites 5-methoxytryptamine (5MTT) and 5-methoxytryptophol (5MTOL) have been detected in cultured mammalian skin fragments and melanoma cells (Slominski et al., 1996b, Slominski et al., 2002b, Slominski et al., 2002c) indicating similarity in the degradative pathways of melatonin metabolism in frog skin and retina (Cahill and Besharse, 1989, Grace et al., 1991), including the activity of monoamine oxidase (MAO) in mammalian skin (Semak et al., 2004, Slominski, 2005b). It was shown that cutaneous degradation of melatonin may also include pathways known to be operative in the liver and kidney (Grace et al., 1991, Kanda and Watanabe, 2007, Pandi-Perumal et al., 2006) with 6- hydroxymelatonin production as an intermediate (Fischer et al., 2006a). This shows that indolic degradative pathway is operating in the skin (Fischer et al., 2006a, Slominski et al., 1996b). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Skin, the body's largest organ, is strategically located at the interface with the external environment where it detects, integrates, and responds to a diverse range of stressors including solar radiation. It has already been established that the skin is an important peripheral neuro-endocrine-immune organ that is tightly networked to central regulatory systems. These capabilities contribute to the maintenance of peripheral homeostasis. Specifically, epidermal and dermal cells produce and respond to classical stress neurotransmitters, neuropeptides, and hormones. Such production is stimulated by ultraviolet radiation (UVR), biological factors (infectious and noninfectious), and other physical and chemical agents. Examples of local biologically active products are cytokines, biogenic amines (catecholamines, histamine, serotonin, and N-acetyl-serotonin), melatonin, acetylocholine, neuropeptides including pituitary (proopiomelanocortin-derived ACTH, beta-endorphin or MSH peptides, thyroid-stimulating hormone) and hypothalamic (corticotropin-releasing factor and related urocortins, thyroid-releasing hormone) hormones as well as enkephalins and dynorphins, thyroid hormones, steroids (glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids, sex hormones, 7-delta steroids), secosteroids, opioids, and endocannabinoids. The production of these molecules is hierarchical, organized along the algorithms of classical neuroendocrine axes such as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), hypothalamic-thyroid axis (HPT), serotoninergic, melatoninergic, catecholaminergic, cholinergic, steroid/secosteroidogenic, opioid, and endocannbinoid systems. Dysregulation of these axes or of communication between them may lead to skin and/ or systemic diseases. These local neuroendocrine networks are also addressed at restricting maximally the effect of noxious environmental agents to preserve local and consequently global homeostasis. Moreover, the skin-derived factors/systems can also activate cutaneous nerve endings to alert the brain on changes in the epidermal or dermal environments, or alternatively to activate other coordinating centers by direct (spinal cord) neurotransmission without brain involvement. Furthermore, rapid and reciprocal communications between epidermal and dermal and adnexal compartments are also mediated by neurotransmission including antidromic modes of conduction. In conclusion, skin cells and skin as an organ coordinate and/or regulate not only peripheral but also global homeostasis.
Advances in anatomy, embryology, and cell biology 08/2012; 212(v, vii):v, vii, 1-115. DOI:10.1007/978-3-642-19683-6_1 · 17.00 Impact Factor
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