AIDS: is there an answer to the global pandemic? The immune system in HIV infection and control.

Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University of London, London, United Kingdom.
Viral Immunology (Impact Factor: 1.64). 10/2007; 20(3):331-42. DOI: 10.1089/vim.2007.0044
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HIV/AIDS continues to spread globally and remains a worldwide pandemic affecting about 40 million people. The prevention of infection remains paramount to vaccine studies. Although the best immune correlates for an efficacious HIV vaccine have not yet been discovered, progress has been made toward developing a vaccine. The identification of an effective antibody-binding site, targeted by a functional neutralizing antibody, and findings confirming that the Gag-specific responses are effective in protecting against disease progression are major advances in this field. This review highlights immunology-based developments in vaccine research and viral and host cell properties that could be employed to curb the spread of HIV.

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    Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 01/2013; DOI:10.1093/trstmh/trs025 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Candidiasis is the commonest opportunistic fungal infection in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CD4+ lymphocyte counts have been found to be a marker of HIV disease progression. Aim: This study focused on determining the spectrum of Candida isolates in urine, stool, and oral specimens among HIV patients in a tertiary hospital. Methods: A total of 300 subjects comprising of 200 HIV patients and 100 non-HIV subjects were used for this study. Three samples (urine, stool, and oral swab) were collected from each subject. Each specimen was processed using standard microbiological techniques and emergent Candida isolates were identified with CHROMagar™ Candida and sugar fermentation tests. Results: The overall prevalence of Candida colonisation among HIV patients was 52.5%. HAART-naive patients had a significantly higher prevalence (OR = 3.65; 95% CI = 2.03-6.56; p<0.0001) than their counterpart on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (OR = 1.99; 95% CI = 1.13-3.50; p=0.0232). Female gender was a significant risk factor for acquiring Candida infection (OR = 3.40; 95% CI = 1.14-10.13; p=0.0289). The effect of age on prevalence of candidiasis was observed among HIV patients on HAART (p=0.0161). A CD4+ count <200 cells/µl was a significant risk factor for acquiring candidal infection only among HAART-naive patients (OR = 4.37; 95% CI = 1.60-11.95; p=0.0042). The five species of Candida recovered from this study were C. albicans, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. glabrata. Conclusion: There is a significant relationship between antiretroviral therapy, CD4+ counts, and the prevalence of candidiasis.
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