The thorough screening of the MUTYH gene in a large French cohort of sporadic colorectal cancers
ABSTRACT The MUTYH gene encodes a key glycosylase of the base-excision repair system that is involved in maintaining genomic DNA stability against oxidative damage. Biallelic germline MUTYH mutations have been proved to greatly predispose to non-familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and non-hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) familial recessive forms of colorectal cancer with multiple adenomas. To date, there is still much debate over the impact of monoallelic germline MUTYH mutations on colorectal carcinogenesis. To evaluate their role in the susceptibility to sporadic colon and rectum cancers, we screened 1024 French sporadic colorectal cancer cases and 1121 French healthy controls for Caucasian MUTYH-associated polyposis mutations, including already known mutations p.Gly382Asp and p.Tyr165Cys, and new mutation p.Val479Phe. We observed a nonstatistically significant association between these MUTYH mutations at a heterozygous state and an increase in colorectal cancer risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.70-2.27). As a result, we conclude that heterozygous MUTYH mutations do not play a major role in sporadic colorectal carcinogenesis although a modest effect on this process cannot be ruled out.
SourceAvailable from: Enni Markkanen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Maintenance of genetic stability is crucial for all organisms in order to avoid the onset of deleterious diseases such as cancer. One of the many proveniences of DNA base damage in mammalian cells is oxidative stress, arising from a variety of endogenous and exogenous sources, generating highly mutagenic oxidative DNA lesions. One of the best characterized oxidative DNA lesion is 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxo-G), which can give rise to base substitution mutations (also known as point mutations). This mutagenicity is due to the miscoding potential of 8-oxo-G that instructs most DNA polymerases (pols) to preferentially insert an Adenine (A) opposite 8-oxo-G instead of the appropriate Cytosine (C). If left unrepaired, such A:8-oxo-G mispairs can give rise to CG->AT transversion mutations. A:8-oxo-G mispairs are proficiently recognized by the MutY glycosylase homologue (MUTYH). MUTYH can remove the mispaired A from an A:8-oxo-G, giving way to the canonical base excision repair (BER) that ultimately restores undamaged Guanine (G). The importance of this MUTYH-initiated pathway is illustrated by the fact that biallelic mutations in the MUTYH gene are associated with a hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome termed MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). In this review, we will focus on MUTYH, from its discovery to the most recent data regarding its cellular roles and interaction partners. We discuss the involvement of the MUTYH protein in the A:8-oxo-G BER pathway acting together with pol λ, the pol that can faithfully incorporate C opposite 8-oxo-G and thus bypass this lesion in a correct manner. We also outline the current knowledge about the regulation of MUTYH itself and the A:8-oxo-G repair pathway by posttranslational modifications (PTM). Finally, to achieve a clearer overview of the literature, we will briefly touch on the rather confusing MUTYH nomenclature. In short, MUTYH is a unique DNA glycosylase that catalyzes the excision of an undamaged base from DNA.Frontiers in Genetics 02/2013; DOI:10.3389/fgene.2013.00018
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ABSTRACT: MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP) is an autosomal recessive adenomatous polyposis caused by biallelic germline mutations of the base-excision-repair gene MUTYH. In MAP patients of European origin, the combined allele frequency of the mutations p.Tyr179Cys and p.Gly396Asp ranges between 50 and 82%, while these mutations have not been identified in Far Eastern Asian populations, supporting the hypothesis that a founder effect has occurred at some point in European history. To investigate the natural history of the two common European MUTYH alleles, we genotyped six gene-flanking microsatellite markers in 80 unrelated Italian and German MAP patients segregating one or both mutations and calculated their age in generations (g) by using DMLE+2.2 software. Three distinct common haplotypes, one for p.Tyr179Cys and two for p.Gly396Asp, were identified. Estimated mutation ages were 305 g (95% CS: 271-418) for p.Tyr179Cys and 350 g (95% CS: 313-435) for p.Gly396Asp. These results provide evidence for strong founder effects and suggest that the p.Tyr179Cys and p.Gly396Asp mutations derive from ancestors who lived between 5-8 thousand years and 6-9 thousand years B.C., respectively.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 30 January 2013; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2012.309.European journal of human genetics: EJHG 01/2013; 22(7). DOI:10.1038/ejhg.2012.309 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genome-wide association studies have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesised that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer. We examined 13 338 colorectal cancer cases and 40 967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p value of 2.92×10(-4) was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. Two correlated SNPs-rs10090154 and rs4242382-in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.18; p=1.74×10(-5)), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites. This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer; thus, adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multicancer risk region at 8q24.Gut 08/2013; DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2013-305189 · 13.32 Impact Factor