Assessment of 54 biomarkers for biopsy-detectable prostate cancer.
ABSTRACT We analyzed the association of 54 biomarkers from seven classes including adipokines, immune response metalloproteinases, adhesion molecules, and growth factors with prostate cancer risk adjusting for the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) risk score.
A total of 123 incident prostate cancer cases and 127 age-matched controls were selected from subjects in the San Antonio Center for Biomarkers of Risk of Prostate Cancer cohort study. Prediagnostic serum concentrations were measured in the sample collected at baseline using LabMAP technology. The odds ratios (OR) of prostate cancer risk associated with serum concentrations of 54 markers were estimated using univariate conditional logistic regression before and after adjustment for the PCPT risk score. Two-way hierarchical unsupervised clustering techniques were used to evaluate whether the 54-marker panel distinguished cases from controls.
Vascular endothelial growth factor, resistin, interleukin 1Ra (IL-1Ra), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, matrix metalloproteinase-3, plasminogen activator inhibitor, and kallikrein-8 were statistically significantly (P < 0.05) underexpressed in prostate cancer cases, and alpha-fetoprotein was statistically significantly overexpressed in prostate cancer cases, but all had area underneath the receiver-operating characteristic curve <60%; none were statistically significant adjusting for multiple comparisons (P < 0.0008) or after adjustment for the PCPT risk score. Statistical clustering of patients by the marker panel did not distinguish a separate group of cases from controls.
This age-matched case-control study did not support findings of increased diagnostic potential from a 54-marker panel when compared with the conventional risk factors incorporated in the PCPT risk calculator. Future discovery of new biomarkers should always be tested and compared against conventional risk factors before applying them in clinical practice.
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Early detection of prostate cancer (CaP), the most prevalent cancer and the second-leading cause of death in men, has proved difficult, and current detection methods are inadequate. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing is a significant advance for early diagnosis of patients with CaP. PSA is produced almost exclusively in the prostate, and abnormalities of this organ are frequently associated with increased serum concentrations. Because of PSA's lack of specificity for CaP, however, many patients undergo unnecessary biopsies or treatments for benign or latent tumors, respectively. Thus, a more specific method of CaP detection is required to augment or replace screening with PSA. The focus recently has been on creating cost-effective assays for circulating protein biomarkers in the blood, but because of the heterogeneity of CaP, it has become clear that this effort will be a formidable challenge. Each marker will require proper validation to ensure clinical utility. Although much work has been done on variations of the PSA test (i.e., velocity, density, free vs bound, proisoforms) with limited usefulness, there are many emerging markers at various stages of development that show some promise for CaP diagnosis. These markers include kallikrein-related peptidase 2 (KLK2), early prostate cancer antigen (EPCA), PCA3, hepsin, prostate stem cell antigen, and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR). We review biomarkers under investigation for the early diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. It is hoped that the use of panels of markers can improve CaP diagnosis and prognosis and help predict the therapeutic response in CaP patients.Clinical Chemistry 11/2008; 54(12):1951-60. · 7.91 Impact Factor