Heterozygous N-terminal deletion of I kappa B alpha results in functional nuclear factor kappa B haploinsufficiency, ectodermal dysplasia, and immune deficiency
ABSTRACT Nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a master transcriptional regulator critical for ectodermal development and normal innate and adaptive immune function. Mutations in the IkappaB kinase gamma/NF-kappaB essential modifier have been described in male subjects with the syndrome of X-linked ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency that results from impaired activation of NF-kappaB.
We sought to determine the genetic cause of ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency in a female patient.
Toll-like receptor-induced production of the NF-kappaB-dependent cytokines TNF-alpha and IFN-alpha was examined by means of ELISA, the patient's IkappaBalpha gene was sequenced, and NF-kappaB activation was evaluated by means of electrophoretic mobility shift assay and NF-kappaB-luciferase assays in transfectants.
Toll-like receptor function was impaired in the patient. Sequencing of the patient's IkappaBalpha gene revealed a novel heterozygous mutation at amino acid 11 (W11X). The mutant IkappaBalphaW11X protein did not undergo ligand-induced phosphorylation or degradation and retained NF-kappaB in the cytoplasm. This led to roughly a 50% decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity, leading to functional haploinsufficiency of NF-kappaB activation. Unlike the only other reported IkappaBalpha mutant associated with ectodermal dysplasia associated with immune deficiency (ED-ID), S32I, IkappaBalphaW11X exerted no dominant-negative effect.
Functional NF-kappaB haploinsufficiency was associated with ED-ID, and this strongly suggests that normal ectodermal development and immune function are stringently dependent on NF-kappaB in that they might require more than half of normal NF-kappaB activity.
Although ED-ID is well described in male subjects, female subjects can present with a similar syndrome of ectodermal dysplasia with immune deficiency resulting from mutations in autosomal genes within the NF-kappaB pathway.
SourceAvailable from: Martin Jakob Larsen[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We report an infant of consanguineous parents of Turkish decent with a novel immunodeficiency associated with homozygosity for a nonsense mutation of the gene encoding Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) kinase subunit beta (IKKβ). At five months, she presented with respiratory insufficiency and Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia which was successfully treated. At nine months, iatrogenic systemic infection with Mycobacterium bovis was found and eventually led to her death at age 14 months. Laboratory findings were reminiscent of hyper-IgM syndrome, but genetic testing gave no explanation before whole exome sequencing revealed a novel mutation abrogating signaling through the canonical NF-κB pathway.Journal of Clinical Immunology 09/2014; 34(8). DOI:10.1007/s10875-014-0097-1 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mendelian primary immunodeficiency diseases (MPIDs) are rare disorders affecting distinct constituents of the innate and adaptive immune system. Although they are genetically heterogeneous, a substantial group of MPIDs is due to mutations in genes affecting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) transcription pathway, essential for cell proliferation and cell survival and involved in innate immunity and inflammation. Many of these genes encode for crucial regulatory components of the NF-κB pathway and their mutations are associated with immunological and developmental signs somehow overlapping in patients with MPIDs. At present, nine different MPIDs listed in the online mendelian inheritance in man (OMIM) are caused by mutations in at least nine different genes strictly involved in the NF-κB pathway that result in defects in immune responses. Here we report on the distinct function of each causative gene, on the impaired NF-κB step and more in general on the molecular mechanisms underlining the pathogenesis of the disease. Overall, the MPIDs affecting the NF-κB signalosome require a careful integrated diagnosis and appropriate genetic tests to be molecularly identified. Their discovery at an ever-increasing rate will help establish a common therapeutic strategy for a subclass of immunodeficient patients.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 12 March 2015; doi:10.1038/gene.2015.3.Genes and Immunity 03/2015; DOI:10.1038/gene.2015.3 · 3.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Patients with ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (ED-ID) caused by mutations in the inhibitor of NF-κB α (IκBα) are susceptible to severe recurrent infections, despite normal T and B cell numbers and intact in vitro lymphocyte function. Moreover, the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in these patients is poor despite good engraftment. Mice heterozygous for the IκBα S32I mutation found in patients exhibited typical features of ED-ID. Strikingly, the mice lacked lymph nodes, Peyer's patches, splenic marginal zones, and follicular dendritic cells and failed to develop contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or form germinal centers (GCs), all features not previously recognized in patients and typical of defective noncanonical NF-κB signaling. Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR)-driven induction of chemokines and adhesion molecules mediated by both canonical and noncanonical NF-κB pathways was impaired, and levels of p100 were markedly diminished in the mutant. IκBα mutant→Rag2(-/-), but not WT→IκBα mutant, bone marrow chimeras formed proper lymphoid organs and developed CHS and GCs. Defective architectural cell function explains the immunodeficiency and poor outcome of HSCT in patients with IκBα deficiency and suggests that correction of this niche is critical for reconstituting their immune function. © 2015 Mooster et al.