Novel insights from adaptor protein 3 complex deficiency.
ABSTRACT Hermansky-Pudlak type 2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by oculocutaneous albinism, bleeding disorders, recurrent infections, and moderate/severe neutropenia. The disease is caused by mutations in the AP3B1 gene encoding for the beta3A subunit of the adaptor protein 3 (AP-3) complex. Because the expression of the beta3A subunit is normally ubiquitous, its deficiency leads to a precise phenotype in cells with a large number of intracellular granules, such as neutrophils, natural killer cells, cytotoxic T lymphocytes, platelets, and melanocytes. Given the AP-3 deficiency, the lysosomal membrane proteins are not appropriately sorted to the granules but are delivered to plasma membrane with subsequent effects on cell development and differentiation. Missorting of proteins (eg, tyrosinase) in melanocytes and platelets accounts for oculocutaneous albinism and bleeding disorders, respectively. Absence of AP-3 leads to low intracellular content of neutrophil elastase and consequently to neutropenia. Abnormal movement of lytic granules and reduced perforin content in cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells account for their respective defects in cytolytic activity. It is likely that the investigation of the physiopathology of Hermansky-Pudlak type 2 syndrome will reveal nonredundant functions of this adaptor protein in the intracellular trafficking of membrane proteins.
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ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that secrete cytokines upon activation and mediate the killing of tumor cells and virus-infected cells, especially those that escape the adaptive T cell response caused by the down regulation of MHC-I. The induction of cytotoxicity requires that NK cells contact target cells through adhesion receptors, and initiate activation signaling leading to increased adhesion and accumulation of F-actin at the NK cell cytotoxic synapse. Concurrently, lytic granules undergo minus-end directed movement and accumulate at the microtubule-organizing center through the interaction with microtubule motor proteins, followed by polarization of the lethal cargo toward the target cell. Ultimately, myosin-dependent movement of the lytic granules toward the NK cell plasma membrane through F-actin channels, along with soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor-dependent fusion, promotes the release of the lytic granule contents into the cleft between the NK cell and target cell resulting in target cell killing. Herein, we will discuss several disease-causing mutations in primary immunodeficiency syndromes and how they impact NK cell-mediated killing by disrupting distinct steps of this tightly regulated process.Frontiers in Immunology 01/2014; 5:2.
Article: Natural killer cell deficiency.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Natural killer (NK) cells are part of the innate immune defense against infection and cancer and are especially useful in combating certain viral pathogens. The utility of NK cells in human health has been underscored by a growing number of persons who are deficient in NK cells and/or their functions. This can be in the context of a broader genetically defined congenital immunodeficiency, of which there are more than 40 presently known to impair NK cells. However, the abnormality of NK cells in certain cases represents the majority immunologic defect. In aggregate, these conditions are termed NK cell deficiency. Recent advances have added clarity to this diagnosis and identified defects in 3 genes that can cause NK cell deficiency, as well as some of the underlying biology. Appropriate consideration of these diagnoses and patients raises the potential for rational therapeutic options and further innovation.The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2013; 132(3):515-25. · 12.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypopigmentation disorders that are associated with immunodeficiency feature both partial albinism of hair, skin and eyes together with leukocyte defects. These disorders include Chediak Higashi (CHS), Griscelli (GS), Hermansky-Pudlak (HPS) and MAPBP-interacting protein deficiency syndromes. These are heterogeneous autosomal recessive conditions in which the causal genes encode proteins with specific roles in the biogenesis, function and trafficking of secretory lysosomes. In certain specialized cells, these organelles serve as a storage compartment. Impaired secretion of specific effector proteins from that intracellular compartment affects biological activities. In particular, these intracellular granules are essential constituents of melanocytes, platelets, granulocytes, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, abnormalities affect pigmentation, primary hemostasis, blood cell counts and lymphocyte cytotoxic activity against microbial pathogens. Among eight genetically distinct types of HPS, only type 2 is characterized by immunodeficiency. Recently, a new subtype, HPS9, was defined in patients presenting with immunodeficiency and oculocutaneous albinism, associated with mutations in the pallidin-encoding gene, PLDN.Hypopigmentation together with recurrent childhood bacterial or viral infections suggests syndromic albinism. T and NK cell cytotoxicity are generally impaired in patients with these disorders. Specific clinical and biochemical phenotypes can allow differential diagnoses among these disorders before molecular testing. Ocular symptoms, including nystagmus, that are usually evident at birth, are common in patients with HPS2 or CHS. Albinism with short stature is unique to MAPBP-interacting protein (MAPBPIP) deficiency, while hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) mainly suggests a diagnosis of CHS or GS type 2 (GS2). Neurological disease is a long-term complication of CHS, but is uncommon in other syndromic albinism. Chronic neutropenia is a feature of HPS2 and MAPBPIP-deficiency syndrome, whereas it is usually transient in CHS and GS2. In every patient, an accurate diagnosis is required for prompt and appropriate treatment, particularly in patients who develop HLH or in whom bone marrow transplant is required. This review describes the molecular and pathogenetic mechanisms of these diseases, focusing on clinical and biochemical aspects that allow early differential diagnosis.Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases 10/2013; 8(1):168. · 4.32 Impact Factor