Shark IgNAR antibody mimotopes target a murine immunoglobulin through extended CDR3 loop structures.
ABSTRACT Mimotopes mimic the three-dimensional topology of an antigen epitope, and are frequently recognized by antibodies with affinities comparable to those obtained for the original antibody-antigen interaction. Peptides and anti-idiotypic antibodies are two classes of protein mimotopes that mimic the topology (but not necessarily the sequence) of the parental antigen. In this study, we combine these two classes by selecting mimotopes based on single domain IgNAR antibodies, which display exceptionally long CDR3 loop regions (analogous to a constrained peptide library) presented in the context of an immunoglobulin framework with adjacent and supporting CDR1 loops. By screening an in vitro phage-display library of IgNAR variable domains (V(NAR)s) against the target antigen monoclonal antibody MAb5G8, we obtained four potential mimotopes. MAb5G8 targets a linear tripeptide epitope (AYP) in the flexible signal sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1), and this or similar motifs were detected in the CDR loops of all four V(NAR)s. The V(NAR)s, 1-A-2, -7, -11, and -14, were demonstrated to bind specifically to this paratope by competition studies with an artificial peptide and all showed enhanced affinities (3-46 nM) compared to the parental antigen (175 nM). Crystallographic studies of recombinant proteins 1-A-7 and 1-A-11 showed that the SYP motifs on these V(NAR)s presented at the tip of the exposed CDR3 loops, ideally positioned within bulge-like structures to make contact with the MAb5G8 antibody. These loops, in particular in 1-A-11, were further stabilized by inter- and intra- loop disulphide bridges, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and aromatic residue packing. We rationalize the higher affinity of the V(NAR)s compared to the parental antigen by suggesting that adjacent CDR1 and framework residues contribute to binding affinity, through interactions with other CDR regions on the antibody, though of course definitive support of this hypothesis will rely on co-crystallographic studies. Alternatively, the selection of mimotopes from a large (<4 x 10(8)) constrained library may have allowed selection of variants with even more favorable epitope topologies than present in the original antigenic structure, illustrating the power of in vivo selection of mimotopes from phage-displayed molecular libraries.
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ABSTRACT: A mutation strategy which utilises phage display technology and the Escherichia coli mutator strains, mutD5-FIT and XL1-RED, was applied to a Hepatitis B (HepB) specific single-chain Fv (scFv) to incorporate random mutations throughout the gene. Messenger RNA from a hybridoma producing antibodies against HepB was isolated, reverse transcribed and used as template for the production of scFv. Following production of the scFv protein using an E. coli expression vector (pGC), the scFv gene was recloned into a phage display vector (pHFA). This gene construct was introduced into E. coli mutator cells and the transformed cells were used as an inoculum for liquid cultures. After five cycles of growth at 37 degrees C, each followed by dilution and re-inoculation of fresh media, recombinant phage were recovered. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the scFv gene in phage selected on HBsAg-coated magnetic beads identified amino acid substitutions which produced an increase of greater than 10-fold in apparent production levels. Competitive ELISA studies showed that the selected scFv mutants appeared to have similar affinity to HBsAg as the parent scFv. The apparent increase in production was not the result of improved surface characteristics of regions uniquely exposed in scFvs, as the sites did not correlate with the variable/constant interface of the scFv variable region normally masked in Fabs or IgGs.Gene 12/1997; 201(1-2):203-9. · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The new antigen receptor (IgNAR) is an antibody unique to sharks and consists of a disulphide-bonded dimer of two protein chains, each containing a single variable and five constant domains. The individual variable (V(NAR)) domains bind antigen independently, and are candidates for the smallest antibody-based immune recognition units. We have previously produced a library of V(NAR) domains with extensive variability in the CDR1 and CDR3 loops displayed on the surface of bacteriophage. Now, to test the efficacy of this library, and further explore the dynamics of V(NAR) antigen binding we have performed selection experiments against an infectious disease target, the malarial Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1) from Plasmodium falciparum. Two related V(NAR) clones were selected, characterized by long (16- and 18-residue) CDR3 loops. These recombinant V(NAR)s could be harvested at yields approaching 5mg/L of monomeric protein from the E. coli periplasm, and bound AMA1 with nanomolar affinities (K(D)= approximately 2 x 10(-7) M). One clone, designated 12Y-2, was affinity-matured by error prone PCR, resulting in several variants with mutations mapping to the CDR1 and CDR3 loops. The best of these variants showed approximately 10-fold enhanced affinity over 12Y-2 and was Plasmodium falciparum strain-specific. Importantly, we demonstrated that this monovalent V(NAR) co-localized with rabbit anti-AMA1 antisera on the surface of malarial parasites and thus may have utility in diagnostic applications.Proteins Structure Function and Bioinformatics 05/2004; 55(1):187-97. · 3.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antigen binding site of an antibody is made up of residues residing in six hypervariable loops of the heavy and light chains. In most cases several or all of these loops are required for the establishment of the antigen-binding surface. Five of these loops display a limited diversity in length and sequence while the third complementarity determining region (CDR) of the heavy chain is highly different between antibodies not only with respect to sequence but also with respect to length. Its extensive diversity is a key component in the establishment of binding sites allowing for the recognition of essentially any antigen by humoral immunity. The relative importance of its sequence vs its length diversity in this context is however, not very well established. To investigate this matter further we have used an approach employing combinatorial antibody libraries and antigen-specific selection in the search for CDRH3 length and sequence diversity compatible with a given antigen specificity, the major antigenic determinant on the tumour-associated antigen mucin-1. In this way we have now defined heavy chain CDR3 length as a critical parameter in the creation of an antigen-specific binding site. We also propose that this may reflect a dependence of a particular structure of this hypervariable loop, the major carrier of diversity in the binding site, for establishment of a given specificity.Journal of Molecular Recognition 01/2004; 17(4):332-8. · 3.01 Impact Factor