Shark IgNAR antibody mimotopes target a murine immunoglobulin through extended CDR3 loop structures.
ABSTRACT Mimotopes mimic the three-dimensional topology of an antigen epitope, and are frequently recognized by antibodies with affinities comparable to those obtained for the original antibody-antigen interaction. Peptides and anti-idiotypic antibodies are two classes of protein mimotopes that mimic the topology (but not necessarily the sequence) of the parental antigen. In this study, we combine these two classes by selecting mimotopes based on single domain IgNAR antibodies, which display exceptionally long CDR3 loop regions (analogous to a constrained peptide library) presented in the context of an immunoglobulin framework with adjacent and supporting CDR1 loops. By screening an in vitro phage-display library of IgNAR variable domains (V(NAR)s) against the target antigen monoclonal antibody MAb5G8, we obtained four potential mimotopes. MAb5G8 targets a linear tripeptide epitope (AYP) in the flexible signal sequence of the Plasmodium falciparum Apical Membrane Antigen-1 (AMA1), and this or similar motifs were detected in the CDR loops of all four V(NAR)s. The V(NAR)s, 1-A-2, -7, -11, and -14, were demonstrated to bind specifically to this paratope by competition studies with an artificial peptide and all showed enhanced affinities (3-46 nM) compared to the parental antigen (175 nM). Crystallographic studies of recombinant proteins 1-A-7 and 1-A-11 showed that the SYP motifs on these V(NAR)s presented at the tip of the exposed CDR3 loops, ideally positioned within bulge-like structures to make contact with the MAb5G8 antibody. These loops, in particular in 1-A-11, were further stabilized by inter- and intra- loop disulphide bridges, hydrogen bonds, electrostatic interactions, and aromatic residue packing. We rationalize the higher affinity of the V(NAR)s compared to the parental antigen by suggesting that adjacent CDR1 and framework residues contribute to binding affinity, through interactions with other CDR regions on the antibody, though of course definitive support of this hypothesis will rely on co-crystallographic studies. Alternatively, the selection of mimotopes from a large (<4 x 10(8)) constrained library may have allowed selection of variants with even more favorable epitope topologies than present in the original antigenic structure, illustrating the power of in vivo selection of mimotopes from phage-displayed molecular libraries.
- SourceAvailable from: Ahmed Mansour Alzohairy[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Camelids have unique antibodies, namely HCAbs (VHH) or commercially named Nanobodies(®) (Nb) that are composed only of a heavy-chain homodimer. As libraries based on immunized camelids are time-consuming, costly and likely redundant for certain antigens, we describe the construction of a naïve camelid VHHs library from blood serum of non-immunized camelids with affinity in the subnanomolar range and suitable for standard immune applications. This approach is rapid and recovers VHH repertoire with the advantages of being more diverse, non-specific and devoid of subpopulations of specific antibodies, which allows the identification of binders for any potential antigen (or pathogen). RNAs from a number of camelids from Saudi Arabia were isolated and cDNAs of the diverse vhh gene were amplified; the resulting amplicons were cloned in the phage display pSEX81 vector. The size of the library was found to be within the required range (10(7)) suitable for subsequent applications in disease diagnosis and treatment. Two hundred clones were randomly selected and the inserted gene library was either estimated for redundancy or sequenced and aligned to the reference camelid vhh gene (acc. No. ADE99145). Results indicated complete non-specificity of this small library in which no single event of redundancy was detected. These results indicate the efficacy of following this approach in order to yield a large and diverse enough gene library to secure the presence of the required version encoding the required antibodies for any target antigen. This work is a first step towards the construction of phage display-based biosensors useful in disease (e.g., TB or tuberculosis) diagnosis and treatment.Comptes rendus biologies 04/2014; 337(4):244-9. · 1.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mimetics of conformational protein epitopes have broad applications, but have been difficult to identify using conventional peptide phage display. The tenth type III domain of human fibronectin (FNfn10) has two extended, randomizable surface-exposed loops and might be more amenable to the identification of such mimetics. We therefore selected a library of FNfn10 clones, randomized in both loops (15 residues in all), for binding to monoclonal antibodies (MAb) that recognize the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein. Anti-idiotypic monobodies (αIMs) mimicking both "linear" epitopes (2F5 and 4E10 MAbs) and conformational epitopes (b12 and VRC01 MAbs) were generated. αIMs selected against 2F5 and 4E10 frequently displayed sequence homology to the corresponding linear native epitopes. In the case of b12 and VRC01, we expected that the two constrained loop domains of FNfn10 would both contribute to complex conformational interactions with target antibodies. However, mutagenesis studies revealed differences from this simple model An αIM selected against b12 was found to bind its cognate antibody via only a few residues within the BC loop of FNfn10, with minimal contribution from the FG loop. Unexpectedly, this was sufficient to generate a protein that engaged its cognate antibody in a manner very similar to HIV-1 Env, and with a strong K(D) (43 nM). In contrast, an αIM selected against VRC01 engaged its cognate antibody in a manner that was dependent on both BC and FG loop sequences. Overall, these data suggest that the FNfn10 scaffold can be used to identify complex structures that mimic conformational protein epitopes. αααBiochemistry 02/2013; · 3.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: Biologics drugs have succeeded in achieving a commercial dominance in the global market for new therapies and large pharmaceutical companies' interest remains strong through a continued commitment to pipeline development. It is not surprising, therefore, that next-generation biologics, particularly antibody-like scaffolds that offer many of the advantages of the original biologic drugs but in simplified formats, have entered the clinic as competing substitute therapeutic products, to capture market share. Areas covered: Specifically, this paper will position shark-derived variable new antigen receptors (VNARs) within an overview of the existing biologics landscape including the growth, diversity and success to date of alternative scaffolds. The intention is not to provide a comprehensive review of biologics as a whole but to discuss the main competing single-domain technologies and the exciting therapeutic potential of VNAR domains as clinical candidates within this context. Expert opinion: The inherent ability to specifically bind target and intervene in disease-related biological processes, while reducing off-site toxicity, makes mAbs an effective, potent and now proven class of therapeutics. There are, however, limitations to these 'magic bullets'. Their size and complexity can restrict their utility in certain diseases types and disease locations. In contrast, a number of so-called alternative scaffolds, derived from both immunoglobulin- and non-immunoglobulin-based sources have been developed with real potential to overcome many of the shortcomings documented for mAb treatments. Unlike competing approaches such as Darpins and Affibodies, we now know that shark VNAR domains (like camel VHH nanobody domains), are an integral part of the adaptive immune system of these animals and have evolved naturally (but from very different starting molecules) to exhibit high affinity and selectivity for target. In addition, and again influenced by the environment in which they have evolved naturally, their small size, simple architecture, high solubility and stability, deliver additional flexibility compared to classical antibodies (and many non-natural alternative scaffolds), thereby providing an attractive basis for particular clinical indications where these attributes may offer advantages.Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy 08/2014; 14(10):1-13. · 3.65 Impact Factor