Estimates of maternal mortality worldwide between 1990 and 2005: an assessment of available data.
ABSTRACT Maternal mortality, as a largely avoidable cause of death, is an important focus of international development efforts, and a target for Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 5. However, data weaknesses have made monitoring progress problematic. In 2006, a new maternal mortality working group was established to develop improved estimation methods and make new estimates of maternal mortality for 2005, and to analyse trends in maternal mortality since 1990.
We developed and used a range of methods, depending on the type of data available, to produce comparable country, regional, and global estimates of maternal mortality ratios for 2005 and to assess trends between 1990 and 2005.
We estimate that there were 535,900 maternal deaths in 2005, corresponding to a maternal mortality ratio of 402 (uncertainty bounds 216-654) deaths per 100,000 livebirths. Most maternal deaths in 2005 were concentrated in sub-Saharan Africa (270,500, 50%) and Asia (240,600, 45%). For all countries with data, there was a decrease of 2.5% per year in the maternal mortality ratio between 1990 and 2005 (p<0.0001); however, there was no evidence of a significant reduction in maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa in the same period.
Although some regions have shown some progress since 1990 in reducing maternal deaths, maternal mortality ratios in sub-Saharan Africa have remained very high, with little evidence of improvement in the past 15 years. To achieve MDG5 targets by 2015 will require sustained and urgent emphasis on improved pregnancy and delivery care throughout the developing world.
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ABSTRACT: Institutional delivery is one of the key and proven strategies to reduce maternal deaths. Since the 1990s, the government of India has made substantial investment on maternal care to reduce the huge burden of maternal deaths in the country. However, despite the effort access to institutional delivery in India remains below the global average. In addition, even in places where health investments have been comparable, inter- and intra-state difference in access to maternal care services remain wide and substantial. This raises a fundamental question on whether the sub-national units themselves differ in terms of the efficiency with which they use available resources, and if so, why? Data obtained from round 3 of the country's District Level Health and Facility Survey was analyzed to measure the level and determinants of inefficiency of institutional delivery in the country. Analysis was conducted using spatial stochastic frontier models that correct for heterogeneity and spatial interactions between sub-national units. Inefficiency differences in maternal care services between and within states are substantial. The top one third of districts in the country has a mean efficiency score of 90 per cent or more, while the bottom 10 per cent of districts exhibit mean inefficiency score of as high as over 75 per cent or more. Overall mean inefficiency is about 30 per cent. The result also reveals the existence of both heterogeneity and spatial correlation in institutional delivery in the country. Given the high level of inefficiency in the system, further progress in improving coverage of institutional delivery in the country should focus both on improving the efficiency of resource utilization-especially where inefficiency levels are extremely high-and on bringing new resources in to the system. The additional investment should specifically focus on those parts of the country where coverage rates are still low but efficiency levels are already at a high level. In addition, given that inefficiency was also associated inversely with literacy and urbanization and positively related with proportion of households belonging to poor households, investment in these areas can also improve coverage of institutional delivery in the country.BMC Health Services Research 03/2015; 15(1):118. DOI:10.1186/s12913-015-0763-x · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background Although most of maternal deaths are preventable, maternal mortality reduction programs have not been completely successful. As targeting individuals alone does not seem to be an effective strategy to reduce maternal mortality (Millennium Development Goal 5), the present study sought to reveal the role of many distant macrostructural factors affecting maternal mortality at the global level. Methods After preparing a global dataset, 439 indicators were selected from nearly 1800 indicators based on their relevance and the application of proper inclusion and exclusion criteria. Then Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the relationship between these indicators and maternal mortality. Only indicators with statistically significant correlation more than 0.2, and missing values less than 20% were maintained. Due to the high multicollinearity among the remaining indicators, after missing values analysis and imputation, factor analysis was performed with principal component analysis as the method of extraction. Ten factors were finally extracted and entered into a multiple regression analysis. Results The findings of this study not only consolidated the results of earlier studies about maternal mortality, but also added new evidence. Education (std. B = −0.442), private sector and trade (std. B = −0.316), and governance (std. B = −0.280) were found to be the most important macrostructural factors associated with maternal mortality. Employment and labor structure, economic policy and debt, agriculture and food production, private sector infrastructure investment, and health finance were also some other critical factors. These distal factors explained about 65% of the variability in maternal mortality between different countries. Conclusion Decreasing maternal mortality requires dealing with various factors other than individual determinants including political will, reallocation of national resources (especially health resources) in the governmental sector, education, attention to the expansion of the private sector trade and improving spectrums of governance. In other words, sustainable reduction in maternal mortality (as a development indicator) will depend on long-term planning for multi-faceted development. Moreover, trade, debt, political stability, and strength of legal rights can be affected by elements outside the borders of countries and global determinants. These findings are believed to be beneficial for sustainable development in Post-2015 Development Agenda. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12992-015-0087-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.Globalization and Health 02/2015; 11(1). DOI:10.1186/s12992-015-0087-y · 1.83 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The WHO Essential Medicines List (EML) was established to help countries prioritise medicines according to their health care needs. Selection for the List is based on rigorous scrutiny of public health relevance, evidence on efficacy and safety, and comparative cost effectiveness. The WHO ideal is that a medicine and its efficacy are based on science, but in reality a medicine has a social life and the acceptance of a pharmaceutical intervention involves the interaction of a wide array of governmental and civil society organisations, and industry. Misoprostol is a medicine widely used for both abortion and prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in low income countries. Although the evidence for the latter is highly contested it was nevertheless added to the WHO EML in 2011. We use social network analysis to examine the social, political and economic field surrounding the WHO EML applications and health policy. We describe a chronology of the drug's use and of the applications to the WHO EML and carry out a social network analysis of the organisations and individuals involved in the applications, research and dissemination. The research identified a network of 238 organisations and individuals involved in the promotion of misoprostol for postpartum haemorrhage and present at the time of the WHO EML applications. There is a strong interdependency between the funding bodies, civil society organisations, researchers and clinician organisations. The research was part of an EU FP7 funded project on Accessing Medicines in Africa and South Asia (2010-2013). Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Social Science & Medicine 03/2015; 132. DOI:10.1016/j.socscimed.2015.03.011 · 2.56 Impact Factor