Application of methods for viral clearance in stem cell production.
ABSTRACT Regenerative medicine therapies will allow in the future the transplant of cells of human origin in some diseases that until now have been incurable. The assurance of the safety and quality, especially from a microbiological point of view, is very important for these therapeutic products. Depending on the starting material, there are several sources of pathogen presence, mainly human viruses. Also, the use of feeders of animal origin as layers in which the stem cells can grow may permit the transmission of animal pathogens to these cells. However, cell sources are limited due to the low availability of spare in vitro fecundation human embryos and the low rate of success in the derivation of human stem cell lines. Thus, in several cases, it will be necessary to evaluate the possibility of removing or inactivating these microorganisms. In this paper, we summarize the main methods of viral clearance and we have provided an overview of the main features taking into account in the viral clearance techniques.
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ABSTRACT: Although patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease have a poor prognosis with conventional therapies, high-dose chemotherapy and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (autotransplantation) may provide long-term progression-free survival. We reviewed data from the Autologous Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry (ABMTR) to determine relapse, disease-free survival, overall survival, and prognostic factors in this group of patients. Detailed records from the ABMTR on 414 patients with Hodgkin's disease in first relapse (n = 295) or second complete remission (CR) (n = 119) receiving an autotransplant from 1989 to 1995 were reviewed. Median age was 29 (range, 7-64) years. Median time from diagnosis to relapse was 18 (range, 6-219) months; median time from relapse to transplant was 5 (range, <1-215) months. Most patients received high-dose chemotherapy without total body irradiation for conditioning (n = 370). The most frequently used high-dose regimen was cyclophosphamide, BCNU, VP-16 (CBV) (n = 240). The graft consisted of bone marrow (n = 246), blood stem cells (n = 112), or both (n = 56). Median follow-up was 46 (range, 5-96) months. One hundred-day mortality (95% confidence interval) was 7 (5-9)%. One hundred and sixty-five of 295 patients (56%) transplanted in relapse achieved CR after autotransplantation. Of these, 61 (37%) recurred. Twenty-four of 119 patients (20%) transplanted in CR recurred. The probability of disease-free survival at 3 years was 46 (40-52)% for transplants in first relapse and 64 (53-72)% for those in second remission (P < 0.001). Overall survival at 3 years was 58 (52-64)% after transplantation in first relapse and 75 (66-83)% after transplantation in second CR (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, Karnofsky performance score <90% at transplant, abnormal serum LDH at transplant, and chemotherapy resistance were adverse prognostic factors for outcome. Progression of Hodgkin's disease accounted for 69% of all deaths. Autotransplantation should be considered for patients with Hodgkin's disease in first relapse or second remission. Future investigations should focus on strategies designed to decrease relapse after autotransplantation, particularly in patients at high risk for relapse.Bone Marrow Transplantation 02/2001; 27(4):387-96. · 3.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The transmission of hepatitis A virus (HAV) has been associated with the use of a number of solvent/detergent-treated factor VIII concentrates and possibly a factor IX concentrate. These reports have emphasized the necessity of using virus-inactivation methods for plasma products that are capable of inactivating nonenveloped viruses such as HAV. A simple, highly accurate titration procedure for HAV, which allows extensive kinetic investigations of virus-inactivation procedures, has been developed. This system has now been used to evaluate the efficacy of vapor heating in inactivating HAV after the addition of the virus to a range of human plasma products. It was demonstrated that HAV was significantly more thermostable than other picornaviruses, which reinforced the fact that such viruses cannot be used as model viruses for HAV-inactivation studies. A one-step vapor-heating procedure was demonstrated to inactivate between 5.9 and > 6.3 log10 of HAV in different products. A two-step vapor-heating procedure had the capacity to inactivate between > 8.7 and > 10.4 log10 of HAV. Both procedures were more effective in inactivating HAV than was the pasteurization procedure used for virus inactivation in human albumin solutions. These data demonstrate the efficacy of vapor heating in inactivating high-titer HAV after the spiking of plasma products with virus. This study confirms and explains the results of controlled clinical trials and long-term clinical usage with respect to the lack of HAV transmission by such vapor-heated products.Transfusion 02/1997; 37(2):215-20. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human blastocyst-derived, pluripotent cell lines are described that have normal karyotypes, express high levels of telomerase activity, and express cell surface markers that characterize primate embryonic stem cells but do not characterize other early lineages. After undifferentiated proliferation in vitro for 4 to 5 months, these cells still maintained the developmental potential to form trophoblast and derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers, including gut epithelium (endoderm); cartilage, bone, smooth muscle, and striated muscle (mesoderm); and neural epithelium, embryonic ganglia, and stratified squamous epithelium (ectoderm). These cell lines should be useful in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine.Science 12/1998; 282(5391):1145-7. · 31.03 Impact Factor